Über die Unterschiede und Differenzen zwischen Asha´irah und Maturidiyya

Veröffentlicht: 12. Februar 2013 in Ibn Taymiyyah

Gefunden auf :

http://marifah.net/articles/disagreementsbetweenasharisandmaturidis-ibnkamalbasha.pdf

Hier ist die beste Antwort von Allamah Ibn Katheer als Ashari :

I had been looking into some statements of Ibn Kathir [RH] in his famous Tafsir when I stumbled on the following statement quoted from al-Hafidh Ibn Hajar [RH]: http://www.ahlalhdeeth.com/vb/showthread.php?t=15551&highlight=%C7%E1%CF%D1%D1+%C7%E1%DF%C7%E3%E4%C9

روى الحافظ ابن حجر العسقلاني في ترجمة ابراهيم نجل ابن القيم الجوزية رحمه الله كما جاء في كتابه الدرر الكامنة ما نصه :

ابراهيم بن محمد بن أبي بكر بن أيوب بن قيم الجوزية … تقدم وأفتى ودرس , وذكره الذهبي في المعجم المختص فقال : تفقه بأبيه وشارك في العربية وسمع وقرأ واشتغل بالعلم ..ومن نوادره أنه وقع بينه وبين عماد الدين ابن كثير منازعة في تدريس الناس فقال له ابن كثير : أنت تكرهني لأنني أشعري . فقال له : لو كان من رأسك الى قدمك شعر ما صدقك الناس في قولك أنك أشعري وشيخك ابن تيمية !! )) انتهى كلام الحافظ ابن حجر

ذكر في الدرر الكامنة للحافظ ابن حجر

Basically, Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani [RH] is apparently reporting in ad-durar al-kamina chapter 1 page 65 a dispute between Ibn Kathir and the son of Ibn Al-Qayyim Al-Jawziyya.

Ibn Kathir said to him: „You do not like me because I am an Ash‘ ari“.

The son of Ibn Al-Qayyim replied:“Even if you had hair from head to feet, people would not believe that you are ash‘ ari as your sheikh is Ibn Taymiyya!!“[end quote]

Another interesting snippet of information from the above on-line link is that apparently Imam al-Subki [RH] mentions in „Tabaqat ash-shafi‘ iyya“ volume 10 page 398 that a condition to teach at the house of hadith „Al-Ashrafiyya“ was to be ash‘ ari in ‚aqida and that apparently Imam Ibn Kathir occupied the post of professor at this house of Hadith in the month of Muharram in the year 772H.

Can we derive from this that Ibn Kathir was an Ash’ari? Some people may claim as such but, of course, others will point to his praise of Ibn Taymiyya [rh] in al-Bidaya, etc., etc.

Regardless, I wish to share some interesting quotes from his Tafsir which seems to be devoid of the literalism of Sh. Ibn Taymiyya and some other Hanbalis……..

Verse 7:54 : Istawa

Imam Ibn Kathir says in his Tafsir of the verse ثُمَّ ٱسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلْعَرْشِ translated by some as:

„Then He ‚was established‘ (istawa) upon the Throne“ (Qur’an 7 : 54) :وأما قوله تعالى: { ثُمَّ ٱسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلْعَرْشِ } فللناس في هذا المقام مقالات كثيرة جداً ليس هذا موضع بسطها، وإنما نسلك في هذا المقام مذهب السلف الصالح مالك والأوزاعي والثوري والليث بن سعد والشافعي وأحمد وإسحاق بن راهويه وغيرهم من أئمة المسلمين قديماً وحديثاً، وهو إمرارها كما جاءت من غير تكييف ولا تشبيه ولا تعطيل، والظاهر المتبادر إلى أذهان المشبهين منفي عن الله، لا يشبهه شيء من خلقه و{ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَىْءٌ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلْبَصِيرُ }

…people have many positions on this matter, and this is not the place to present them at length. On this point, we follow the position of the early Muslims (salaf): Malik, Awza’i, Thawri, Layth ibn Sa’d, Shafi’i, Ahmad, Ishaq ibn Rahawayh, as well as others among the Imams of the Muslims, ancient and modern – namely, to let the verse pass as it has come, without saying how it is meant (bi la takyif), without any resemblance to created things (wa la tashbih), and without nullifying it (wa la ta’til), and the literal outward meaning (dhahir) that comes to the minds of anthropomorphists (al-mushabbihin) is negated of Allah, for nothing created has any resemblance to Him: „There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him, and He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing“

بل الأمر كما قال الأئمة، منهم: نعيم بن حماد الخزاعي شيخ البخاري، قال: من شبه الله بخلقه كفر، ومن جحد ما وصف الله به نفسه فقد كفر، وليس فيما وصف الله به نفسه ولا رسوله تشبيه، فمن أثبت لله تعالى ما وردت به الآيات الصريحة، والأخبار الصحيحة، على الوجه الذي يليق بجلال الله، ونفى عن الله تعالى النقائص، فقد سلك سبيل الهدى

But the fact of the matter is as explained by the Imams; like Nu`aym ibn Hammad al-Khuza’i who is Imam Bukhari’s shaykh – he said:

Whosoever likens Allah to His creation has committed disbelief [kufr], whosoever rejects what Allah has attributed to Himself has committed disbelief [kufr]. There is absolutely no similitude [tash’bih] in what Allah ta’ala or His messenger has described Allah with. And, whoever affirms Allah [in terms of] what has been transmitted from Him of clear verses and authentic reports – on the way that is befitting of the Majesty of Allah ta’ala and negates all flaws from Allah ta’ala- verily he has tread the path of guidance.

Verse 48:10 : Yad of Allah

(إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَنْ نَكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنْكُثُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا)قال الامام ابن كثير: ( “ يَد اللَّه فَوْق أَيْدِيهمْ “ أَيْ هُوَ حَاضِر مَعَهُمْ يَسْمَع أَقْوَالهمْ وَيَرَى مَكَانهمْ وَيَعْلَم ضَمَائِرهمْ وَظَوَاهِرهمْ فَهُوَ تَعَالَى هُوَ الْمُبَايِع بِوَاسِطَةِ رَسُول اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى “ إِنَّ اللَّه اِشْتَرَى مِنْ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْفُسهمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمْ الْجَنَّة يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيل اللَّه فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاة وَالْإِنْجِيل وَالْقُرْآن وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِعَهْدِهِ مِنْ اللَّه فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمْ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُمْ بِهِ وَذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْز الْعَظِيم “ )

Ibn Kathir says about this verse in his Tafsir:

Allah said, next,[يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ]“The Yad of Allah is over their hands“meaning, He is with them, hearing their statements and witnessing their stand, having full knowledge of them inwardly and outwardly. Therefore, Allah the Exalted was indeed taking the pledge from them through His Messenger , like his saying, „Allah hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise): they fight in His cause, and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Qur’an: and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah. then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme.“

Verse 5:64: Yad Allah

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ يَدُ اللَّهِ مَغْلُولَةٌ غُلَّتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَلُعِنُوا بِمَا قَالُوا بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ يُنْفِقُ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ

The Jews say ‚the hands of Allāh are tied‘. (May) their hands be tied and they are cursed for what they proclaim. Nay, His hands are outstretched, spending as He pleases.

Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr:ثم قال تعالى “ بل يداه مبسوطتان ينفق كيف يشاء “ أي بل هو الواهب الفضل الجزيل العطاء الذي ما من شيء إلا عنده خزائنه وهو الذي ما بخلقه من نعمة فمنه وهو لا شريك له الذي خلق لنا كل شيء مما نحتاج إليه في ليلنا ونهارنا وحضرنا وسفرنا وفي جميع أحوالنا كما قال “ وآتاكم من كل ما سألتموه وإن تعدوا نعمة الله لا تحصوها إن الإنسان لظلوم كفار“

He then says ‚Nay, His hands are outstretched, spending as He pleases‘ meaning: rather, He is the Granter, the Bountiful, the Opulent, the Giver regarding Whom there is nothing except that He possesses its treasures [in reference to verse 15:21];  whatever favour His creation enjoys is from Him and He possesses no partner; and it is He Who created for us all things necessary (for our use) in night and day and in residence and in travel and in all states, as He says ‚and He has given you all that which you ask of Him and if you were to count the blessings of Allah you will not (be able to) number them; truly man is unjust and ungrateful‘ (14:34)

Verse 68:42 : Saaq

تفسير القران الكريم/ ابن كثير

لما ذكر تعالى أن للمتقين عند ربهم جنات النعيم، بيّن متى ذلك كائن وواقع، فقال تعالى: { يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ وَيُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى ٱلسُّجُودِ فَلاَ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ } يعني: يوم القيامة، وما يكون فيه من الأهوال والزلازل والبلاء، والامتحان والأمور العظام.

Allah mentions about the people of god consciousness, that their abode will be paradise with their lord.Thereafter Ibn Kathir discusses when will this take place and Allah says:’yoma yukshafu ‚an saaqin wa yad ‚ona ilass-sujoodi falaa yasstati’oon'“The Day that the saaq [literal translation = shin] shall be laid bare, and they shall be summoned to bow in adoration, but they shall not be able“

which means the day of judgement which will consist of horrors, earthquakes, trials tests and matters which are great.. وقد قال البخاري ههنا: حدثنا آدم، حدثنا الليث عن خالد بن يزيد عن سعيد بن أبي هلال عن زيد بن أسلم، عن عطاء بن يسار عن أبي سعيد الخدري قال: سمعت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: “ يكشف ربنا عن ساقه، فيسجد له كل مؤمن ومؤمنة، ويبقى من كان يسجد في الدنيا رياءً وسمعة، فيذهب ليسجد، فيعود ظهره طبقاً واحداً “ وهذا الحديث مخرج في الصحيحين وفي غيرهما من طرق، وله ألفاظ، وهو حديث طويل مشهور

And al-Bukhari has said regading this, who reported from Adam from al-Layth who reported from Khalid ibn Yazeed from Saeed ibn Abi Hilaal from Zayd ibn aslam from Ata Ibn Yasar from Abi Saeed al-Khudri who heard the Prophet say:“Allah will bring forth the severest Hour [ يكشف ربنا عن ساقه ], and then all the Believers, men and women, will prostrate themselves before Him, but there will remain those who used to prostrate in the world for showing off and for gaining good reputation. Such people will try to prostrate (on the Day of Judgment) but their back swill be as stiff as if it is one bone (a single vertebra).“

[ faqir: I have relied on the translation of this hadith provided by M. Muhsin Khan.  I believe that on this occasion his translation is, in fact, in keeping with the understanding of Ibn Kathir as can be seen from the various quotes he has provided in his tafsir]

This narration is taken from the sahihayn and other books of traditions via different routes with similar wordings and this narration is long which is famous.

وقد قال عبد الله بن المبارك عن أسامة بن زيد عن عكرمة عن ابن عباس: { يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ } قال: هو يوم القيامة، يوم كرب وشدة، رواه ابن جرير، ثم قال: حدثنا ابن حميد، حدثنا مهران عن سفيان عن المغيرة عن إبراهيم عن ابن مسعود، أو ابن عباس ـ الشك من ابن جرير ـ: { يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ } قال: عن أمر عظيم، كقول الشاعر: وقامتِ الحربُ بنا عن ساقٍ

And Abdullah ibn Mubarak has reported from Usama ibn Zayd from Ikrima from Ibn Abbas who said:

‚yoma yukshafu `an saaqin’means, the Day of Judgment, the day of direness or anguish as reported by Ibn Jarir.

Then Ibn Jarir said: Ibn Hameed reported from Mahraan from Sufyan from Mughirah from Ibrahim from Ibn Masud or Ibn Abbas, (Ibn Jarir has a slight doubt with the actual name) who said: „yoma yukshafu ‚an saaqin“ means the day of great matters, like the saying of a poet: ‚when they stand on the plain with us it is a dire situation.‘

وقال ابن أبي نجيح عن مجاهد: { يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ } قال: شدة الأمر. وقال ابن عباس: هي أشد ساعة تكون في يوم القيامة. وقال ابن جرير عن مجاهد: { يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ } قال: شدّة الأمر وجده، وقال عليّ بن أبي طلحة عن ابن عباس قوله: { يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ } هو الأمر الشديد الفظيع من الهول يوم القيامة،

And Ibn Najeh reported from Mujahid who said:’yoma yukshafu `an saaqin’means a day of dire matters (i.e. day of anguish).And Ibn Abbas has said it will be a dire time for the people on the day of judgement.And Ibn Jarir reports from mujahid that he said: ‚yoma yukshafu ‚an saaqin‘ means a day of very dire matters.And Ali ibn Abi Talha reports from ibn abbas that he said: ‚yoma yukshafu ‚an saaqin‘ means that it will be a day of great trial from the horrors of the day of judgment.

وقال العوفي عن ابن عباس: قوله: { يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ } يقول: حين يكشف الأمر، وتبدو الأعمال، وكشفه: دخول الآخرة، وكشف الأمر عنه، وكذا روى الضحاك وغيره عن ابن عباس، أورد ذلك كله

And Awfi has reported from Ibn Abbas that he said:’yoma yukshafu ‚an saaqin‘

means the great matters with be revealed, starting with deeds i.e. unveiling them from start to end and thereafter revealing the decision on him/her. This is narrated by ad-Dahak and others from Ibn Abbas and this is everything from him (i.e. Ibn Abbas).

أبو جعفر بن جرير، ثم قال: حدثني أبو زيد عمر بن شبَّة، حدثنا هارون بن عمر المخزومي، حدثنا الوليد بن مسلم، حدثنا أبو سعيد روح بن جناح عن مولى لعمر بن عبد العزيز عن أبي بردة بن أبي موسى عن أبيه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: “ { يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ } يعني: عن نور عظيم يخرّون له سجداً “ ورواه أبو يعلى عن القاسم بن يحيى عن الوليد بن مسلم به، وفيه رجل مبهم، والله أعلم.

Abu Ja’far ibn Jarir thereafter states: that it was reported to me from Abu Zayd Amr ibn Shaba from Haroon ibn Amr al-Makhzoomi from Waleed ibn Muslim from Abu Sa’eed Rahwiy ibn Janaah from the servant of Umar ibn Abdul Aziz who reported from Abi Barda ibn Abi Musa from his father who reported from the prophet who said: ‚yoma yukshafu ‚an saaqin‘ means ‚the day of great light on those who fall to prostration‘.This is narrated by Abi Yala from Qasim ibn Yahya from Waleed ibn Muslim and in it are men that are non-identified (mubham) and Allah knows best.

Verse 6:18 : Above His servants

(وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ)قال الامام ابن كثير: ( “ وَهُوَ الْقَاهِر فَوْق عِبَاده “ أَيْ هُوَ الَّذِي خَضَعَتْ لَهُ الرِّقَاب وَذَلَّتْ لَهُ الْجَبَابِرَة وَعَنَتْ لَهُ الْوُجُوه وَقَهَرَ كُلّ شَيْء وَدَانَتْ لَهُ الْخَلَائِق وَتَوَاضَعَتْ لِعَظَمَةِ جَلَاله وَكِبْرِيَائِهِ وَعَظَمَته وَعُلُوّهُ وَقُدْرَته عَلَى الْأَشْيَاء وَاسْتَكَانَتْ وَتَضَاءَلَتْ بَيْن يَدَيْهِ وَتَحْت قَهْره وَحُكْمه )“And He is the Irresistible, above His servants…“

وَهُوَ الْقَاهِر فَوْق عِبَادهmeaning, to Him the necks are subservient, the tyrants humble before Him and He has complete control over all things. The creatures have all bowed to Allah and are humbled before His grace, honor, pride, greatness, highness and ability over all things. The creatures are insignificant before Him, for they are all under His irresistible decision and power

Verse 43:84: In the Heavens(وَهُوَ الَّذِي فِي السَّمَاءِ إِلَهٌ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَهٌ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْعَلِيمُ)قال الامام ابن كثير : (أَيْ هُوَ إِلَه مَنْ فِي السَّمَاء وَإِلَه مَنْ فِي الْأَرْض يَعْبُدهُ أَهْلهمَا وَكُلّهمْ خَاضِعُونَ لَهُ أَذِلَّاء بَيْن يَدَيْهِ“ هُوَ الْحَكِيم الْعَلِيم “ وَهَذِهِ الْآيَة كَقَوْلِهِ سُبْحَانه وَتَعَالَى “ وَهُوَ اللَّه فِي السَّمَوَات وَفِي الْأَرْض يَعْلَم سِرّكُمْ وَجَهْركُمْ وَيَعْلَم مَا تَكْسِبُونَ “ أَيْ هُوَ الْمَدْعُوّ اللَّه فِي السَّمَوَات وَالْأَرْض .)

„And He it is Who is Allah in the heavens and Allah in the earth“means, He is the God of those who are in the heavens and the God of those who are on earth; all of them worship Him and are humbled before Him. „And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.“

This Ayah is like the Ayah:“And He is Allah in the heavens and in the earth; He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn.“ (6:3)which means, He is the One who is called Allah in the heavens and on the earth.

Verse 2:255: Most High

البقرة (255)(و هو العلي العظيم)قال الامام ابن كثير: (فَقَوْله “ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيّ الْعَظِيم “ كَقَوْلِهِ “ وَهُوَ الْكَبِيرُ الْمُتَعَالِ“ وَهَذِهِ الْآيَات وَمَا فِي مَعْنَاهَا مِنْ الْأَحَادِيث الصِّحَاح الْأَجْوَد فِيهَا طَرِيقَة السَّلَف الصَّالِح أَمِرُّوهَا كَمَا جَاءَتْ مِنْ غَيْر تَكْيِيف وَلَا تَشْبِيه )Allah’s statement,وَهُوَ الْعَلِىُّ الْعَظِيمُ“And He is the Most High, the Most Great“is similar to His statement,الْكَبِيرُ الْمُتَعَالِ“the Most Great, the Most High“ (13:9).The approach of the Salaf regarding such verses and those authentic ahadith of the same meaning is to pass by them as they have come without ascribing modality (takyif) or likening [Allah to His creation] (tashbih).

Verse 11:37 : Eyes

(وَاصْنَعِ الْفُلْكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا وَوَحْيِنَا وَلَا تُخَاطِبْنِي فِي الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِنَّهُمْ مُغْرَقُونَ)

قال الامام ابن كثير: (“ وَاصْنَعْ الْفُلْك “ يَعْنِي السَّفِينَة “ بِأَعْيُنِنَا “ أَيْ بِمَرْأًى مِنَّا )“And construct the ship under our Eyes [literal translation] and with our revelation….“

وَاصْنَعِ الْفُلْكَThe word Fulk here means ship.بِأَعْيُنِنَاThis means under Our vision.

Verse 52:48: Eyes(وَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ)قال الامام ابن كثير: (وَقَوْله تَعَالَى “ وَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبّك فَإِنَّك بِأَعْيُنِنَا “ أَيْ اِصْبِرْ عَلَى أَذَاهُمْ وَلَا تُبَالِهِمْ فَإِنَّك بِمَرْأًى مِنَّا وَتَحْت كِلَاءَتنَا وَاَللَّه يَعْصِمك مِنْ النَّاس. )

Allah the Exalted said,وَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا“So wait patiently for the decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes [literal translation]“

meaning, `be patient in the face of their annoyance and do not be concerned about it, for you are under Our vision and Protection, and We will surely protect you from the people,‘

Verse 54:14: Eyes(تَجْرِي بِأَعْيُنِنَا جَزَاءً لِمَنْ كَانَ كُفِرَ)قال الامام ابن كثير: (أَيْ بِأَمْرِنَا بِمَرْأًى مِنَّا وَتَحْت حِفْظِنَا وَكِلَاءَتنَا)“Floating under Our Eyes [literal translation], a reward for him who had been rejected!“

Allah’s statement,تَجْرِى بِأَعْيُنِنَا“Floating under Our Eyes [literal translation]“means, `by Our command and under Our protection and observation,‘

Verse 2:115: Wajh / ‚Face’البقرة (115)(وَلِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ)

قال الامام ابن كثير: ( وَفِي قَوْله وَأَنَّهُ تَعَالَى لَا يَخْلُو مِنْهُ مَكَان إِنْ أَرَادَ عِلْمه تَعَالَى فَصَحِيحٌ فَإِنَّ عِلْمه تَعَالَى مُحِيط بِجَمِيعِ الْمَعْلُومَات وَأَمَّا ذَاته تَعَالَى فَلَا تَكُون مَحْصُورَة فِي شَيْء مِنْ خَلْقه تَعَالَى اللَّه عَنْ ذَلِكَ عُلُوًّا كَبِيرًا…(((قَالَ اِبْن جُرَيْج : قَالَ مُجَاهِد لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ اُدْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ قَالُوا إِلَى أَيْنَ ؟ فَنَزَلَتْ “ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْه اللَّه „))))

And to Allah belongs the east and the west; therefore wherever you turn there is the Wajh [literal translation – FACE] of Allah. Truly Allah is Embracing, All-Knowing.

Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr:وفي قوله وأنه تعالى لا يخلو منه مكان إن أراد علمه تعالى فصحيح فإن علمه تعالى محيط بجميع المعلومات

وأما ذاته تعالى فلا تكون محصورة في شيء من خلقه تعالى الله عن ذلك علوا كبيرا… قال ابن جريج : قال مجاهد لما نزلت ادعوني أستجب لكم قالوا إلى أين ؟ فنزلت “ فأينما تولوا فثم وجه الله “

In his [Ibn Jarir’s] saying ’no place is free of Him Most High‘; if His knowledge was meant by this then this is correct for truly His knowledge encompasses all things.

As for His essence, it is not bound by any part of His creation; exalted is Allāh above that….

Ibn Jurayj said:Mujahid said ‚when (the verse) „ask of Me and I shall respond to you“ (40:60) was revealed, (the people) said „to where (shall we ask)?“ upon this was revealed „therefore wherever you turn there is Allah’s Wajh“ (2:115)‘.

Verse 28:88: Wajh

القصص (88)(وَلَا تَدْعُ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ)قال الامام ابن كثير: (وَقَوْله “ كُلّ شَيْء هَالِك إِلَّا وَجْهه “ إِخْبَار بِأَنَّهُ الدَّائِم الْبَاقِي الْحَيّ الْقَيُّوم الَّذِي تَمُوت الْخَلَائِق وَلَا يَمُوت كَمَا قَالَ تَعَالَى “ كُلّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ وَيَبْقَى وَجْه رَبّك ذُو الْجَلَال وَالْإِكْرَام “ فَعَبَّرَ بِالْوَجْهِ عَنْ الذَّات وَهَكَذَا قَوْله هَهُنَا “ كُلّ شَيْء هَالِك إِلَّا وَجْهه “ أَيْ إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ

Do not call alongside Allāh another god. There is no god but He. All things shall perish save His Wajh (literally Face). To Him belongs the dominion and to Him it shall return.

Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr:وقوله “ كل شيء هالك إلا وجهه “ إخبار بأنه الدائم الباقي الحي القيوم الذي تموت الخلائق ولا يموت كما قال تعالى “ كل من عليها فان ويبقى وجه ربك ذو الجلال والإكرام “ فعبر بالوجه عن الذات وهكذا قوله ههنا “ كل شيء هالك إلا وجهه “ أي إلا إياه

His saying ‚all things shall perish save His Wajh [litera translationl: Face]‘ is a declaration that He is the Eternal, the Everlasting, the Alive, the Self-Subsisting Who shall bring about death in creation and not die (Himself),

as He said Most High’Every being on (earth) shall perish and the Wajh (literal: face) of your Lord shall remain, full of prominence and glory‘ (55:26-27),using ‚face‘ to mean ’self‘, as is the case here (in verse 28:88):’All things shall perish save His Wajh (literal translation: face)‘ i.e. save Himself.

Verse 76:9 – Wajh/Face“We feed you, for the Face of Allāh only. We wish for no reward nor thanks from you.” (76:9)

Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr:إِنمََّا نُطْعِمكُمْ لِوَجْهِ الله” أَيْ رَجَاء ثَوَاب الله وَرِضَاهُ

“We feed you seeking Allāh’s Face only” means seeking the reward of Allāh and His pleasure.

Verse 23:97 : Ta’wiz
وقوله تعالى: { وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ رَبِّ أَن يَحْضُرُونِ } أي: في شيء من أمري، ولهذا أمر بذكر الله في ابتداء الأمور، وذلك لطرد الشيطان؛ عند الأكل والجماع والذبح وغير ذلك من الأمور، ولهذا روى أبو داود أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقول: “ اللهم إني أعوذ بك من من الهرم، وأعوذ بك الهدم ومن الغرق، وأعوذ بك من أن يتخبطني الشيطان عند الموت “ وقال الإمام أحمد: حدثنا يزيد، أخبرنا محمد بن إسحاق عن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه عد جده قال: كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يعلمنا كلمات يقولهن عند النوم من الفزع: “ باسم الله، أعوذ بكلمات الله التامة من غضبه وعقابه ومن شر عباده، ومن همزات الشياطين وأن يحضرون “ قال: فكان عبد الله بن عمرو يعلمها من بلغ من ولده أن يقولها عند نومه، ومن كان منهم صغيراً لا يعقل أن يحفظها، كتبها له، فعلقها في عنقه. ورواه أبو داود والترمذي والنسائي من حديث محمد بن إسحاق. وقال الترمذي: حسن غريب.

Allah has said:„And I seek refuge with you lest they should come near me“
[ibn Kathir comments:] which means; in all issues of my life. Therefore we are commanded to remember Allah before doing anything to ward of the devil, before eating, [sexual] intercourse, slaughtering etc.
Abu Dawood has recorded that the messenger of Allah peace and blessings be upon him used to say:„Oh Allah I seek refuge from old age, I seek refuge with you from the attempts of devil at the time of death“.

Imam Ahmad [ibn Hanbal in His Musnad] narrated from Yazeed who reported from Muhammad ibn Ishaaq who narrated from Amr ibn Shu^ayb from his father who took from his grandfather who said: that the Messenger of Allah peace and blessings be upon him, taught us a supplication that we used to recite before going to sleep to protect us from fear:
„I seek refuge in Allah’s perfect words from His wrath, His punishment and the evil of his servants, the whispered insinuations of the devils, and lest they come to me“.

Abdullah ibn Amr used to teach these words to his sons who reached the age of reason that they used to recite before going to sleep. And as for the younger children who were not literate we used to write them and hang them around their necks.
This tradition is narrated by Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, an-Nasai on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isshaaq and at-tirmidhi said that this report is good and singular.

Verse 4:64: Ya RasulAllah

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُواْ أَنفُسَهُمْ جَآءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُواْ اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُواْ اللَّهَ تَوَّاباً رَّحِيماً“…If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful“

Ibn Kathir cites a famous incident in his explanation of this ayah in his TAFSIR:

وقوله ولو أنهم إذا ظلموا أنفسهم الآية يرشد تعالى العصاة والمذنبين إذا وقع منهم الخطأ والعصيان أن يأتوا إلى الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم فيستغفروا الله عنده ويسألوه أن يغفر لهم فإنهم إذا فعلوا ذلك تاب الله عليهم ورحمهم وغفر لهم ولهذا قال لوجدوا الله توابا رحيما .

His statement وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذْ ظَلَمُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللَّهَ تَوَّاباً رَحِيماً / “If only when they wronged themselves they came to you and asked Allah to forgive them and the Messenger asked for their forgiveness they would find Allah most forgiving and merciful, (4:64)” informs you that if the disobedient and the sinful when they committed some sin or disobedience were to come to the Messenger [sallallahu alayhi wa sallam] and to ask Allah for forgiveness in his presence [that is the presence of the Messenger [sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam] then Allah would relent towards them and show them mercy and forgive them and for this reason He says لَوَجَدُوا اللَّهَ تَوَّاباً رَحِيماً / “they would find Allah most forgiving and merciful.”  وقد ذكر جماعة منهم الشيخ أبو منصور الصباغ في كتابه الشامل الحكاية المشهورة عن العتبي قال كنت جالسا عند قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فجاء أعرابي فقال السلام عليك يا رسول الله سمعت الله يقول ولو أنهم إذ ظلموا أنفسهم جاؤك فاستغفروا الله واستغفر لهم الرسول لوجدوا الله توابا رحيما وقد جئتك مستغفرا لذنبي مستشفعا بك إلى ربي ثم أنشأ يقول   يا خير من دفنت بالقاع أعظمه فطاب من طيبهن القاع والأكم نفسي الفداء لقبر أنت ساكنه فيه العفاف وفيه الجود والكرم   ثم انصرف الأعرابي فغلبتني عيني فرأيت النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في النوم فقال يا عتبي إلحق الأعرابي فبشره أن الله قد غفر له .

A number of the commentators among them Shaikh Abu Mansoor al-Sibaagh [d. 477 / 1084; Baghdad]  in his book al-Shaamil mentioned the famous story of al-‘Utbi [a Companion] who said:

I was sitting at the grave of the Prophet [sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam] when a bedouin came and said:

Peace be upon you O Messenger of Allah.  I heard that Allah said, وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذْ ظَلَمُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللَّهَ تَوَّاباً رَحِيماً / “If only when they wronged themselves they came to you and asked Allah to forgive them and the Messenger asked for their forgiveness they would find Allah most forgiving and merciful, (4:64)” and I have come to you seeking forgiveness for my sin and seeking your intercession for me with my Lord, then he recited [in verse], “O you the best whose bones were ever buried in a plain so that the plain and the hill became fragrant with their scent, my soul be the ransom for the grave in which you dwell!  In it there is uprightness and generosity and honor!”

Then the bedouin went away and my eye overcame me [and I dozed] and saw the Prophet [sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam] in sleep who said: “O ‘Utbi catch up to the bedouin and give him the good news that Allah has forgiven him.”

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