What is Ribaa ?

Veröffentlicht: 14. Januar 2013 in Verbot von Zinswucher

What is Ribaa ?
Riba (Usury and Interest)
According to Quran and Sunnah

Defining the Problem

Riba (Usury) is of two major kinds:

Riba An-Nasia – Interest on lent money

Riba Al-Fadl – Taking a superior thing of the same kind of goods by giving more of the same kind of goods of inferior quality, eg.,dates of superior quality for dates of inferior quality in great amounts.

The definition of Interest, the literal meaning of interest or Al-Riba as it is used in the arabic language means to excess or increase. In the Islamic terminology interest means effortless profit or that profit which comes free from compensation or that extra earning obtained that is free of exchange. Riba has been described as a loan with the condition that the borrower will return to the lender more than and better than the quantity borrowed.

As muslims, our main concern when it comes to financial transactions is to avoid Riba in any of its forms, despite the fact that the basic foundation of the world economics and finance today is that of riba and dealing in usury.

The Prophet peace and blessings be upon him has foretold us of a time when the spread of riba would be so overwhelming that it would be extremely difficult for the muslim to avoid it. This situation calls for muslims to be extra cautious before deciding on what money payment of financial methods to use in any personal or business transaction.

To make sure that we are safe from Riba, we have to learn which transactions lead to it.

Interest in Pre-Islamic Times

HafizIbn hajr writes in his commentary of Sahih Bukhari (Fathul Bari), Vol. IV p.264:

Imam Malik reports on the authority of Zaid Ibn Aslam that in the period of ignorance (pre-Islamic times) interest was changed according to the following scheme. One person had a right to the property of another person. It may have been a general right because of the amount lent or the price of something purchased or in any other form. A time was set when the claim would be settled.When the appointed time arrived the creditor would ask the debtor if he wanted to settle the claim or pay interest with an extension of time. If the claim was settled then there was no increase in the payment. Otherwise the debtor would increase the amount payable and the creditor would extend the period further.

Textual Evidence

Hadith – Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, No. 299; Narrated ‘Aun bin Abu Juhaifah, r.a.
My father bought a slave who practised the profession of cupping, (My father broke the servants instruments of cupping). I asked my father why he had done so. He replied, „The Prophet forbade the acceptance of the price of a dog or blood, and also forbade the profession of tatooing, or getting tatooed and receiving or giving Riba (Usury), and cursed the picture makers.“

Hadith – Sahih Bukhari, 2.468, Narrated Samura bin Jundab, r.a.

He speaks of in a dream related to the Prophet (SAW) that there is a river of blood and a man was in it, and another man was standing at its bank with stones in front of him,facing the man standing in the river. Whenever the man in the river wanted to come out , the other one threw a stone in his mouth and caused him to retreat back into his original position.The Prophet peace and blessings be upon him was told that these people in this river of blood were people who dealt in Riba (usury).

The Noble Qur’an – Al-Baqarah 275-281

275. Those who eat Ribâ (usury) will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the standing of a person beaten by Shaitân (Satan) leading him to insanity. That is because they say: „Trading is only like Ribâ (usury),“ whereas Allâh has permitted trading and forbidden Ribâ (usury). So whosoever receives an admonition from his Lord and stops eating Ribâ (usury) shall not be punished for the past; his case is for Allâh (to judge); but whoever returns [to Ribâ (usury)], such are the dwellers of the Fire – they will abide therein.

276. Allâh will destroy Ribâ (usury) and will give increase for Sadaqât (deeds of charity, alms, etc.) And Allâh likes not the disbelievers, sinners.

277. Truly those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât, they will have their reward with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

278. O you who believe! Be afraid of Allâh and give up what remains (due to you) from Ribâ (usury) (from now onward), if you are (really) believers.

279. And if you do not do it, then take a notice of war from Allâh and His Messenger but if you repent, you shall have your capital sums. Deal not unjustly (by asking more than your capital sums), and you shall not be dealt with unjustly (by receiving less than your capital sums).

280. And if the debtor is in a hard time (has no money), then grant him time till it is easy for him to repay, but if you remit it by way of charity, that is better for you if you did but know.

281. And be afraid of the Day when you shall be brought back to Allâh. Then every person shall be paid what he earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.

The Noble Qur’an – Al-Imran 3:130

O you who believe! Eat not Ribâ (usury) doubled and multiplied, but fear Allâh that you may be successful.

Hadith – Mishkat-ul-Masabih

The following three ahadith have been taken from Mishkat-ul-Masabih under the section of interest and the English translation has been taken from its English version written by Al Hajj Moulana Fazl Karim (218-227 vol.11)

Hazrat Jabir r.a. has reported that the Messenger of Allah peace and blessings be upon him cursed the devourer of usury, its payer, its scribe and its two witnesses. He also said that they were equal (in sin).

Hazrat Abu Hurairah r.a. reported that the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him said : A time will certainly come over the people when none will remain who will not devour usury. If he does not devour it, its vapour will overtake him. [Ahmed,Abu Dawood,Nisai,Ibn Majah]

Hazrat Abu Hurairah radiyallahu anhu reported that the Messenger of Allah peace and blessings be upon him said: I came across some people in the night in which I was taken to the heavens.Their stomachs were like houses wherein there were serpents,which could be seen from the front of the stomachs. I asked :O Gabriel! Who are these people? He replied these are those who devoured usury. [Ahmed,Ibn Majah]

Taken from Muslims against Ribaa

Collected by Talib al Muwahhid

DEBT RELIGION PART1

The first thing we need to understand is that the modern debt based economy is a religion. The word religion is from the Latin religare, which means to bind together. It carries the sense of: obligation, bond or a deep respect for someone or something. So the credit or debt based economy that we are a part of, is religious. It binds us as a group, we accept that money is a token or voucher controlled and produced by banks that can be used for buying goods.

The money you borrow did not exist until you borrowed it. It does not exist. So the money in your pocket is a token and our lives revolve around it. This is worship. So our money is our religion, because it binds our society to the worship of the false money.

After becoming fully aware of this fact that some ‘truths’ are not true. When you deny that a sword is sharp this does not mean it will not cut your throat. These are a set of beliefs installed into you. The paper money is your god! Your decisions are based around your money, which you worship. When you borrow money, the bank creates the token-money to lend it to you. But it is not money it is a piece of paper or an electronic digit! Your calling it money and spend your life struggling to get hold of it, is the worship that made you a slave to it. You have become a slave to this fake bogus money. This is what controls you, it controls your mind you don’t need to look for a conspiracy theory. By this you are deluded and committing a crime against your only true lord Allah.

Ok so you are probably thinking that I am being extreme and will probably argue that if I am so against it then why should I not try living without the paper and electronic money. Some of you will be saying that I am making an issue about something, which I have no power to change. If you are saying these things, then your living day to day is more important to you than living with justice. My advice to you is get on with your living, I wish to speak to those men and women who want to change the situation and who are willing to protect the rights of the weaker. This same evil device – money – controls nations, large companies or groups and individuals. There is one financial instrument that begins to unfold in this unspoken subject and that instrument goes by the name of THE MORTGAGE.

First of all lets look at the meaning of this word. Mortgage is a word that comes from a mixture of two Latin roots. The first part MORT is from mortuus which means DEATH. The other part GAGE means pledge. So Mortgage literally means DEATH PLEDGE! You are making a commitment to death.

All over the world, countries, nations and individual people are enslaved by the mortgage which is an agreement to borrow an amount of bogus money to pay for something, e.g a house, a car, or whatever. Then you repay the bogus money you borrowed, you must repay much more times the bogus money than you borrowed. The first problem is that by the rules of credit (debt) economics and fractional reserve banking, before you borrowed that amount of bogus money, it did NOT actually exist! By your borrowing the money, your action has created it, you are hanging yourself with your own hand. To borrow means to take something that belongs to someone else with the intention of returning it. How can you borrow something that does not exist? If it did not exist how could it belong to anyone? If it does not belong to anyone how on earth can I borrow it? Very puzzling eh?

A national debt is a mortgage which is held by a nation or country. This is then a debt which is held by those who make up the nation at the time of its contract and those that are to come. We are mortgaged as a nation as if we are a corporation and we mortgage our children and grandchildren. The national debt is designed so you are never ever able to pay it off, and it is simply a system of controlling the masses. Its pure genius, they’ve got you big time!

Having possession means you actually possess real merchandise. Not having possession means you don’t possess it. A promise of payment or a debt owed is non-possession because you do not have it in your hands. In essence anything which is to be collected later is not to be sold for something at hand. For example you have two gold coins which you have in your possession and you give them to the other person as payment for oranges, but the other person says he will deliver oranges to you later in the day or tomorrow, because they are not in his possession at that time, this is wrong. The transaction is Ḥaram because the second person does not have the oranges with them to hand over on the spot. It forbidden for us to do business in this way. The only way to do this business would be to make him your agent and pay him for obtaining the oranges. The Shari’ah forces the transactions to be clearly conducted according to the nature of the circumstances.

Riba an-Nasiah is exchanging something you do not have in your possession for something that the other person has in their possession on the spot. It also deals with exchanging something you do not have in your possession with something the other person does not have in their possession. For example you make a payment using a plastic card or paper money, for a jumper – sweater – which will arrive in a week. This is Ḥaram, because the plastic card or paper money is not real money, i.e. it is not a real commodity such as gold coins, silver coins or any other acceptable form of money. Since it does not represent real money which is kept elsewhere, and the jumper – sweater – is not in the possession of the other person. It cannot be handed over to you on the spot at the time of the transaction.

For a transaction to be allowed where there is an exchange between you and another person, you both must have possession of the goods and then by this you can exchange and the exchange must be on the spot; this is Ḥalal. You both exchanged goods and walked away and there is no one left waiting for anything. For example you agree to exchange one gold coin for fifty apples. So you hand over the one gold coin and the other person hands over the fifty apples, it is done on the spot. There is no time delay between both people, the exchange has happened and you both possess the goods, you get your oranges there and then and the other gets the one gold coin there and then. The gold coin is a real commodity, it is real money. The currency we are using nowadays paper or plastic is not real money or not even a representation of real money and is itself fraud.

Paper and digital money is fraud. Paper is not a commodity. It used to be a promissory note that can be redeemed, meaning the note used to represent gold kept elsewhere. This is not the case anymore. It represents absolutely nothing. It is fraud.

What Riba (Usury) Really IS Part 5

Riba al- Nasiah:

To Exchange, possession for possession = ḤALAL;
To exchange, possession for non-possession = ḤARAM;
To exchange, non-possession for non-possession = ḤARAM.

In sales Riba an-Nasiah happens, especially when money is represented by non-possession but is treated as something you possess, and is used as a means of payment. So in effect you are using something that is not there and treating it as something that is there. An example of this is, if receipts were given for the produce of the market and the people bought and sold the receipts among themselves before they took delivery of the goods, this is Riba an-Nasiah. The use of receipts which people buy and sell before they take delivery of the goods is not permissible. So Riba in the case of those receipts, is due to the non-possession which people have bought and sold before they took actual delivery of the goods.

However it is allowed to use the gold, silver or food to make the payment because it is actually a real commodity that is present at the time of transaction, but you cannot USE the promise of payment as if it were a possessed real commodity, even if you agree to provide payment by a specific date. In this there is an excess that is not allowed. If you have non-possession, you have to take possession of the commodity that it represents. Then and only then you can carry out a transaction. You cannot use the non-possession as money. For example if you had silver coins locked away and had a receipt for it. You cannot use the receipt to pay for some chocolate you want, you would firstly have to get the silver coins with your receipt and pay for the chocolate. This is a Ḥalal transaction. The handing over of a receipt as payment for the chocolate represents non-possession, even though the receipt actually represents real money – silver – in this case. There is a simple rule which is you do not sell something which is present, for something which is absent.

Also do not sell gold for gold unless it is like for like (that is that three hundred grams of gold must be sold for three hundred grams of gold) and do not increase part of it over another part and the same applies to silver or anything else used as money. You should also not sell some of it which is there for some of it which is not there. If a person asks you to wait for payment until he goes to get it from his house, then do not leave him. This is called Rama and it is also Riba. Rama today is the common practice in all our markets. Non-possession currency (paper money, receipts, plastic cards, digital money, which is fraud) has replaced the use of possession currency – Dinar, Dirham or other commodity money.

To sell with delay is not limited to metals, it also includes food. It is also forbidden to sell food before getting delivery of it. So you are selling oranges to someone and taking payment, but you do not have any oranges at that time, the oranges will be delivered later to you. So then, Riba al-Nasiah has entered the transaction, by the addition of an artificial delay that does not belong to the nature of the transaction. What does ‘artificial’ and ‘the nature of the transaction’ mean? It means that every transaction has its own natural conditions of timing and price.

A loan would naturally involve a delay but no increase of quantity in repayment so this is allowed. So a person gives an amount of money, after a period of time (an excess) the person returns the money without any increase. So by this the excess in time is justified and is Ḥalal. If you were to add an increase in the quantity to be repaid this is unjustified and is Ḥaram and this aspect would fall under Riba al-Fadl. For example you lend someone one hundred silver coins and they return to you exactly one hundred silver coins. This is ok. But if they were to give you anything extra on top of the one hundred silver coins that would make it Ḥaram. So when you lend to someone you must receive the same in return, you cannot add anything to it, such as interest. Once nothing is added, the delay in time on a loan, is not an issue and so is allowed.

An exchange would involve no delay and no quantity excess. So a person gives an amount of money and without delay the equivalent is given. Delays are not justified in an exchange. If you want to delay the payment, you have to make a loan, you cannot obtain a loan disguised as a ‘delayed exchange’. Delayed exchange falls under Riba an-Nasiah.

In a situation of renting this would involve delay and excess and it is Ḥalal. If you were to rent a house, you take possession of the house for a time (excess) and you return it plus the payment of a rent (excess). The excess of the time and quantity are justified and it is Ḥalal. But you can only rent merchandise that can be hired such as cars, houses or tools. But you cannot hire money or food stuff, because it will be consumed when it is used and by its use is no longer present. To pretend to hire money is to corrupt the nature of the transaction by treating the commodity in a manner contrary to its nature and so it becomes Riba. As a result of this every transaction has its conditions relating to its nature. To take the conditions of one type of transaction and then try to apply them to the other is not allowed because there will be corruption in the transactions. Additionally to add any unjustified conditions or any excess to a transaction is also Riba.

The main thing we need to recognise is that the money we are using in this time is NOT a representation of any commodity or even money itself and this paper, digital currency is fraud. We will look into this in the conclusion.

When examining what Riba is, we have to look at what money is and take a deep look at the banking system and really understand what a bank is. How it creates money. The entire banking system is based on Riba. Every single transaction they make and profit from is Riba. They usually make profit from one transaction and profit from one transaction is riba. The paper which we use is fraud because it does not represent any real commodity at all. The banks print paper and create digital money on a computer and we are taught to treat it as money, but money has to be a commodity such as gold and silver. The paper and digital money that is being created daily is not a representation of commodity. Modern money is fraud!

The money in our pockets is not money, it is fake, it is only paper and has no real value at all. The plastic card is the same, it is just plastic and represents numbers on a screen, again no value. If you were to take this fake paper into the bank and try to exchange it for gold, they are going to tell you to jump into a lake. Modern money is created by criminal men and has no lasting value. Paper money started as a debt in the first place so this will then leave a path of debt throughout the economy. The debt is then a rope tightening around our necks which we are trapped in and keeps us slaves with no freedom whatsoever. So as more and more money is created and the debt is increased the money’s buying power decreases and this is what is called inflation.

We have been educated in this system, to make us believe that modern money is valuable; that it is worth something. We must open our eyes and see what has happened to us, which is that the money is worthless and we have been tricked and defrauded. We must accept, understand and see that this is the case and the true reality. Because we have a belief in this worthless money, this is what gives it, its false value and power over us. The education system has fooled us into believing this fraud. We must realise we cannot trust an education system that does this, because the same people who implemented the banking system also have an influence in the educational system. They influence what we are taught and what we are not to be taught. It has been intentionally done and this education system which we trust is just another tool used to control us. By us thinking that usury means interest it does not seem that bad of a deal. But now that we have explored what Riba – Usury – really is, you can clearly see why it was given the obfuscating – to hide the nature of something – name of interest. Let us look at the banks now in more detail.

Where did these banks come from? The origin of paper money as a promissory note was based upon a deposit. In the beginning paper money was a receipt which represented a certain amount of either gold or silver, that was placed with a goldsmith for safekeeping.At that time paper money was not legal tender – enforced as money by the law of the land – but represented a contract for a deposit of gold or silver.

Once a person had deposited the gold or silver with the goldsmith, a receipt is issued by the goldsmith, stating that the gold was held by him; the note represented proof of the deposit. Later what started to happen was that if a person wanted to buy something, instead of going to the goldsmith and getting the gold or silver, they began using the receipts to buy directly which is non-possession. So people started using the receipt because it was easier than going to the goldsmith and by using the receipts as money they began to practice Riba an-Nasiah. Also what then started to happen was that the merchants who received the receipts decided to pay suppliers with the same receipts, again non-possession. As a result of this the receipts effectively started circulating as money but with limitation.

As this was going on the goldsmith realised that though many people could exchange the receipts for the gold and silver deposited with him, not everyone did this at the same time. So the goldsmith started lending receipts for a certain period of time and in the expectation that no one would notice. So the goldsmith started creating money out of nothing which is fraud. Having gotten away with this they then also began lending it at interest and added Riba al-Fadl to their Riba an-Nasiah.

As a result of this banking started. Banks began to appear everywhere, some got bigger and the ones who got too greedy in issuing receipts collapsed. As this continued eventually a new concept of a national bank was created. The first one was The Bank of England which was formed in 1694, and it would be the bank of the banks. The creator William Paterson explained it in this way: “the bank will benefit from the interest of the money that it creates out of nothing”. The connection between the bank and the creation of paper money as money is vital. One cannot be done without the other.

At this moment in time a ten pound note in the United Kingdom states, ‘I promise to pay the bearer on demand the sum of 10 pounds’. Go into any bank and try to exchange your ten pounds for gold. See what happens! Nothing is going to happen. Even worse is your plastic card, it does not state anything on it at all! It just represents numbers on a computer screen. We possess nothing absolutely nothing it is fraud.

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