Archiv für Dezember, 2012

Sufi Mujahideen by Shaykh Khurram Zaman

Veröffentlicht: 19. Dezember 2012 in Sufi Mujahideen

Sufi Mujahideen
By Khuram Zaman

More often than not, the term „Sufi“ invokes images of twirling Dervishes lost in ecstasy, strange people who engage in exotic practices that seem antithetical to Islamic legal traditions, or apolitical mystics fixated in meditation.

In addition to the misconception that Sufism is inherently heterodox, perhaps the greatest misconception is that it is passive and apathetic towards Jihad. In reality, nothing could be further from thetruth.

First and foremost, it is necessary to establish the orthodoxy of Sufism by
pointing out the sheer number of eminent scholars who have been Sufi.

Amongst the Hanafi Ulema, we have ‘Ali Qari (d. 1606)1, ‘Abd al-Ghaffar Nabulsi (1641-1733)2, Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (1564-1624), and Shah Waliullah (1702-1763).

From the Malikis, the following Ulema were Sufi: Ibn ‘Ata’ Illah al-Iskandari (d. 1309)3 and Ibn ‘Ajiba (1747-1809)4.

The Hanbalis had ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Jawzi (1114-1201)5, ‘Abd
al-Karim Jili (1365-1428) who was the great-grandson of ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani 6, and Ibn Rajab7. Mohiyuddin Ibn Arabi was of the Dhahiri madhab.

The Shafi’i madhab too, had a plethora of Sufis as some of its most prestigious scholars: Abul Qasim al-Junayd (d.910)8, Hakim Tirmidhi (d. 320)9, Abu ‘Ali Daqqaq (d. AH 405)10, Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman
Sulami (936 – 1021)11 , Imam Ghazzali (1058 -1111)12, ‘Abd al-Wahhab Sha’rani (1493-1565)13, Abul Qasim Qushayri (986 – 1072)14, Imam ‘Izz ibn ‘Abd al-Salam (1181-1262) ( In addition to his outstanding works in Islamic law, he is also known for his harshness with Muslim rulers who did not fight against the Crusaders vigorously)15, Imam Nawawi
(1233 – 1277)16, and Imam Suyuti (1445 – 1505)17.

It should also be noted that even Muhammad Haya al-Sindi, the hadith teacher of Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab who
introduced him to the works of Ibn Taymeeyah*(There is much debate over whether or not Ibn Taymeeyah was a Sufi of the Qadiri order), was from the Naqshbandi tariqa. Interestingly enough, the great
Indian scholar and Sufi, Shah Waliullah Dilhavi, was a student of another great Sufi scholar, Ibrahim al-Kurrani, who happened to also be the teacher of Muhammad Haya al-Sindi and Shaykh Yusuf who later lead a jihad against the Dutch in Indonesia.18

Aside from the select few of Sufi scholars that were briefly mentioned above, there are countless others who have not been mentioned. Although it does not give the subject justice, it should be clear that the roots of Sufism have always had its roots firmly entrenched in orthodoxy.

The second greatest misconception that people, including non-Muslims, have of Sufism is that it is flaccid in participating in issues pertaining to social justice and engaging in Jihad. History is a testament that not only is Sufism not opposed to Jihad, but rather, Sufis have been amongst the foremost leaders of Jihad. Even the early Sufis were known for their fervent desire for engaging Jihad and seeking martyrdom. For example,
Ibrahim ibn Adham (d. 778), was an early Sufi ascetic who was born into a life luxury which he abandoned in order to study the Sacred Sciences and later fought in jihad against the Byzantines.19 In fact, the very roots of the Sufi zawiya, a type of lodge, has its roots in the ribat. The ribat is a type of fortress that was often built along the ever expanding Islamic frontier. At these fortresses, Sufi shuyookh adapted their teachings of
outward jihad in order to teach their disciples the science of inner jihad.20

During the Crusades, Sufis also participated in popular resistance against the Franks. The Battle of Mansura in Egypt included participants of the likes of Sheikh Abu Hassan ash-Shadhili, Sheikh Ibrahim Dessouki, and Sheikh al-Qannawwi. When Sultan Al Kamel of Egypt began negotiating with the Franks during the Fourth Crusade, Mohiyuddin Ibn Arabi scolded him by saying „You have no pride and Islam will not recognize the likes of you.
Stand up and fight or we shall fight you as we fight them.“
Even Imam Ghazzali castigated the Mameluke Sultans for failing to carry on the fight by giving them a similarly pernicious warning: „Either take up your sword for the sake of Allah and the rescue of your brothers in Islam, or step down from the leadership of Muslims so their rights can be championed by other than you.“21

Egyptian resistance during the Seventh Crusade was lead by Sheikh Ahmad al-Badawi of the Rifa’i tariqa.22 Shaykh Najm al-Din Kubra, the founder of the Kubrawiya tariqa, died in the defense of Khwarazm from the Mongol hordes. Even from within the Ottoman Empire, Sufis mobilized the masses in jihad, often lead rebellions against the rulers, assisted in the
accession of the Sultan, and some even served as chaplains to the warrior class known as the Janissaries.23

During the era of colonialism, Sufis lead resistance movements across the Ummah against imperialism and its purveyors. In the Caucasus, the Russians faced stiff resistance coming primarily from the Naqshbandi and Qadiri tariqas. Mulla Muhammad al-Ghazi al-Kamrawi fought against the Russians when Russia declared itself the protector for the Christians in Khurjistan and annexed portions of Safavid Persia in 1800.

Mulla Muhammad was the Sheikh of the Naqshbandi tariqa and hundreds of thousands of his murids fought against the Russians until he died. Leadership was then transferred to Al-Amir Hamza al-Khanzaji but within a year, he was martyred as well.

The famous Imam Shamil al-Dagestani then became the Amir of the jihad and fought the Russians for twenty-seven consecutive years.24 Interestingly enough, Imam Shamil met Sheikh Abd al- Qadir al-Jaza’iri, another Sufi who was fighting over 3,000 miles away, in 1828 while
on Hajj where they exchanged information about guerilla warfare.25 After his surrender, rebellions were carried on by the murids of the Qadiri order. In 1864, the Russians killed over 4,000 Qadiri murids alone along with many other innocent civilians.

The Naqshbandis and Qadiris joined forces and rebelled in 1865, 1877, 1878 and all throughout the 1890s. During the Soviet Revolution, the Muslims were lead by Shaykh Uzun Haji. Stalin ultimately dealt with the „Chechen problem“ by forcibly relocating the entire population into concentration camps.26

In the Indian subcontinent, Sufis and Sufi orders played a considerable role in active military and intellectual resistance against the British. The Sufis participated in resistance prior to the famous Mutiny of 1857 when the followers of Shah Waliullah, under the leadership of his son Shah ‘Abd al’Aziz (1746-1824) began initiating Jihad. In a fatwa Shah ‘Abd al’Aziz proclaimed India to be Dar al-Harb. He declared jihad, stating
„Our country has been enslaved. To struggle for independence and put an end to the slavery is our duty.“ 27 He was succeeded in his struggles by Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi (1786-1831) who founded the Tariqa-i Muhammadi and was eventually defeated by the Sikhs of Punjab.28 Both Sufi and non-Sufi scholars alike participated actively in the Mutiny of 1857. When the rebellion was finally extinguished, over 50,000 Ulema were dead.29 After the failure of the Mutiny of 1857, resistance to colonialism by the Ulema
re-invented itself in the form of the Deoband movement which established a plethora of 3 maddrassehs all across India that taught the sacred sciences derived from the Qur’an, hadith, law, along with logic, kalam, science, and Sufism of the Chisti order.30

TheTableegi Jamaat grew out of the Deobandi movement through Maulana Muhammad Ilyas Khandelwi who was also a member of the Chisti order through the Sabiri branch. The focus of this movement was a return to the correct understanding of Islam based on the Quran and hadith, adhering to the injunctions of the Shariah, with an astute focus on worship.31

Even in Indonesia, the Qadiri order provided leadership in the already
widespread resistance to Dutch imperialism in the 1840s and 1850s.32
By far, one of the most act areas of Sufi resistance occurred in Africa. Resistanc by Sufis against imperialism began almost as soon as Europeans endeavored at colonizing the Muslim lands. In Morocco, the Shadhili tariqa was the forefront opponent of the Portuguese in the 15th century, the most notable of the Sufis being al-Jazuli.33

Shaykh ‘Uthman Dan Fodio (1754 – 1817) was a Maliki scholar of the Qadiri order who vigorously spoke out against the innovations that had become dominant in his time, particularly the mixing of Islamic and pagan beliefs. He eventually performed hegira, established an Islamic state, and engaged in jihad to unite the region under the Shariah.34

Al-Hajj ‘Umar Tal was a Tijani sheikh from northern Senegal who fought jihad against both the French and pagans of Guinea, Senegal, and Mali. After performing his second pilgrimage, he traveled across various cities in Africa starting in Cairo and eventually coming to Sokoto, Nigeria, where he studied with Muhammad Bello, the son of Shaykh ‘Uthman Dan Fodio, in the field of military sciences and administration.
Upon his return to his homeland, he fought mainly against the pagans of Karta and Segu. ‘Umar was a staunch advocate of the Shariah and after one victory against the polytheists, he destroyed the idols of the pagans with his own hands using an iron mace.35

Al-Hajj Muhammad al-Ahrash from Morocco, a Darqawi Sufi, organized a group comprised of Tunisians and Moroccans in 1799 to fight against the French during their invasion of Egypt. 36 Sayyid Muhammad ‘Abdullah al-Somali (1864-1920) was a Shafi’i scholar and member of the Salihiyya tariqa, which he utilized effectively as a military force for over twenty years against the British and Italians in Somalia. He once said in a speech „Unbelieving men of religion have assaulted our country from their remote homelands. They wish to corrupt our religion, to force us to accept Christianity, supported by the armed force of their governments, their weapons, their numbers. You have you’re your faith in God, your
arms and your determination. Do not be frightened by their soldiers or armies: God is mightier than they . . .“ 37

Perhaps one of the most famous Sufi mujahideen was ‘Abd al-
Qadir al-Jaza’iri (1807-1883), was elected an Amir at the age of twenty-five and personally lead the mujahideen against the French invasion of Algeria in 1830. He was part of the Qadiri order and authored „al-Mawaqif“ [Standpoints], which is a threevolume Sufi manual.38 Ma’ al-‘Aynayn al-Qalqami (1831-1910) of Mauritania was also a
Qadiri Sufi who made a personal alliance with the Sharifian dynasty of Morocco to engage in jihad against the French which resulted in the death of several of his sons.39

In Libya, members of the Sanusi tariqa lead a coalition against the French and Italians.40 In the Middle East, with the Ottoman Empire in disarray, several prominent Sufi scholars carried the banner of Jihad against European occupation.

‘Ali al-Daqar (1877 – 1943) was a Shafi’i scholar and sheikh of the Tijani Tariqa who founded al-Jami’iyya al- Ghurra’, an academy of more than eleven separate schools of the sacred sciences. Along with Badr al-Din al-Hasani, he traveled the Syrian countryside during the French 4occupation and instructed the people of the villages of the obligatory nature of jihad against the imperialists.41

Hashim al-Khatib (1890 – 1958) was a Shafi’i scholar of the Qadiri tariqa also urged the Muslims to wage jihad against the French.42 Muhammad Sa’id Burhani was a Hanafi scholar and Sufi of the Naqshbandi order who fought against the French during their occupation of Syria that began in 1920.43 Sufi resistance has not withered away and is still active in many parts of the Ummah.

For example, during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Sufi tariqas played a pivotal role in evicting the Communists. Many prominent leaders of the resistance were Sufis such as Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, the head of the Qadiri order. He once held the position of Chief of Justice amongst the mujahideen. Two previous presidents of Afghanistan, Sebghatullah Mojaddedi and Burhanuddin Rabbani, are of the Naqshbandi

The founder and the leader of the Taliban, Mullah Mohammad Omar, is allegedly a Naqshbandi as well. Even today, in Iraq a resistance group was recently formed in April 2005 known as the „Jihad Sufi Squadrons of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Gilani“ in order to fight against the American occupation.45
It should be self evident by now that Sufis are not passive, apolitical mystics but have often formed the core intellectual and military elite in propagating Islamic revivals all across the Ummah. The article should not be misconstrued as being a comprehensive study of the role that Sufis have played in daw’ah, the revival of the sacred sciences, and
jihad, but rather, it is intended to be merely a brief introduction to a voluminous study.

May Allah (swt) raise up a leader from amongst us who will fight the fitnah of our day
and unite our Ummah. Ameen.

1 Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (Translated by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller) „Reliance of the Traveller“
Amana Publications. Beltsville 1991 p 1038-1039
2 Ibid 1020
3 Ibid 1053 (Although Taj al-Din Subki concluded that Ibn ‘Ata’Illah was more Shafi’i)
4 Ibid 1052
5 Ibid 1021
6 Ibid 1020-1021
7 Abdal-Hakim Murad „Islamic Spirituality: The Forgotten Revolution“
8 Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (Translated by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller) „Reliance of the Traveller“
Amana Publications. Beltsville 1991 p 1031
9 Ibid 1048
10 Ibid 1026
11 Ibid 1025
12 Ibid 1047-1048
13 Ibid 1023
14 Ibid 1031
15 Ibid Reliance 1064
16 Ibid 1086
17 Ibid 1100
18 John Voll „Muhammad Hayya al-Sindi and Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab: An Analysis of an
Intellectual Group in Eighteenth-Century Madina“ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies,
University of London, Vol. 38, No. 1 (1975) p 32-33
19 Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (Translated by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller) „Reliance of the Traveller“
Amana Publications. Beltsville 1991 p 1061
20 Abdullah Schleifer „Jihad and Traditional Islamic Consciousness“ The Islamic Quarterly, London Fourth
Quarter 1983
21 Sheikh Muhammad Said Al-Shinnawy „Sufism: A Call and an Education“
22 Abdullah Schleifer „Jihad and Traditional Islamic Consciousness“ The Islamic Quarterly, London Fourth
Quarter 1983
23 Ira Lapidus „A History of Islamic Societies“ Cambridge University Press. New York 2002. p 266-267
24 Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (Translated by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller) „Reliance of the Traveller“
Amana Publications. Beltsville 1991 p 1096-1097
25 Kerim Fenari „The Jihad of Imam Shamyl“
26 David Damrel „The Religious Roots of Conflict: Russia and Chechnya; Religious Studies News,
September 1995, Vol. 10, No. 3, p 10
27 M. Burhanuddin Qasmi „Darul Uloom Deoband“
28 Ira Lapidus „A History of Islamic Societies“ Cambridge University Press. New York 2002. p 622-623
29 David Emmanuel Singh „The Independent Madrasas of India: Dar al-‘Ulum, Deoband and Nadvat al-
‘Ulama, Lucknow
30 Ira Lapidus „A History of Islamic Societies“ Cambridge University Press. New York 2002. p 626
31 Ibid 635 (See also Barbara Medcalf “ ‘ Traditionalist’ Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and Talibs“
2002 p 10)
32 Ira Lapidus „A History of Islamic Societies“ Cambridge University Press. New York 2002. p 659-660
33 Abdullah Schleifer „Jihad and Traditional Islamic Consciousness“ The Islamic Quarterly, London Fourth
Quarter 1983 (See also Ira Lapidus „A History of
Islamic Societies“ Cambridge University Press. New York 2002. p 238)
34 Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (Translated by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller) „Reliance of the Traveller“
Amana Publications. Beltsville 1991 p Reliance 1108
35 Ibid 1106
36 Ibid 1074
37 Ibid 1094
38 Ibid 1021 (See also Itzchak Weismann „God and the Perfect Man in the Experience of ‚Abd al-Qâdir al-
39 Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (Translated by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller) „Reliance of the Traveller“
Amana Publications. Beltsville 1991 p 1068
40 Ira Lapidus „A History of Islamic Societies“ Cambridge University Press. New York 2002. p 614
41 Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (Translated by Shaykh Nuh Ha Meem Keller) „Reliance of the Traveller“
Amana Publications. Beltsville 1991 p 1038
42 Ibid 1050
43 Ibid Reliance 1078-1079
44 Dan Alexe „Sufi Brotherhoods Reemerge after the Fall of the Taliban“ February 1st 2002 on Radio Free

Bukhari critizes Abu Hanifah -A Refutation

Veröffentlicht: 18. Dezember 2012 in Uncategorized

Imam Bukhari Criticizes Imam Abu Hanifah: An Analysis

By Pir Syed Mushtaq ‚Ali Shah
Translated by Ebrahim Saifuddin

The claim is a matter of much bravery and courage because no such saying of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه can be presented which can back up this claim. This claim is but a result of jealousy, malice and enmity where whatever the heart desires is said. What can one call this if not a result of malice?

Hafidh Ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Ibn Abi Rawaad رحمة اللہ علیه spoke the truth with sagacity which was noted down by Ibn Hajar Makki رحمة اللہ علیه in Khayraatul Hisaan pg.35:

“Hafidh Ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Ibn Abi Rawaad said that whosoever loves Imam Abu Hanifah is a Sunni and whoever has malice in his heart for him does Bid’ah. It is stated in a narration that Imam Abu Hanifah is between us and the people of the past. Thus whosoever loves him is from the People of Sunnah and whosoever has malice against him is from the People of Innovation.”

Some Ghair Muqallideen lead astray the common layman by saying that Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has written in his book Kitab al-Dhu’afaa:

“(Imam Abu Hanifah) was Murjee and people adopted silence from narrating from him.”

In reply to this I say that firstly the book al-Dhu’afaa by Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه, published in Agra Allahabad, does not contain any such sentence. The same is not found in Adab al-Mufrad, Juzul Qira’ah and Khalqul ‘Ibad either. Even if it is taken to be true, the reply is that Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه had enmity of mathhab towards Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه which is apparent in the writings of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه. Thus this jarh cannot be accepted on the basis of enmity of mathhab. That is why Thahabi, Ibn Hajar, Wasiuddin Khizaji and others رحمة اللہ علیھم did not give any importance to this Jarh and did not even mention it by considering it “لا یعبا به”.

Secondly, regarding the saying that Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه was a Murjee, the meaning has to be established. If by Murjee those were referred on whom be Allah’s Curse, then this is absolutely wrong because it is stated in Fiqh al-Akbar:

“We do not say like the Murjeeah that it is for certain that our good deeds are accepted and sins are forgiven. We say that whosoever does good deeds with all the right conditions, provided he does not make them void and dies in the state of Iman, then Allah will not let go his good deeds to waste and will reward him accordingly by accepting his deeds.”

It is stated in Khayrat al-Hisaan, pg 73, it is stated:

“The Commentator of al-Muwaqif mentions that Ghisaan Murjee used to say things so that it would seem that Imam Abu Hanifah was a Murjee and he used to include Imam Abu Hanifah in the Murjeeah sect. Ghisaan deliberately accused Imam Abu Hanifah to legitimize his mathhab.

Shehristani, in al-Mlal wal Nihal, has said that it is astonishing how Ghisaan used to attribute the teachings of his Murjeeah sect to Imam Abu Hanifah and would call him a Murjeeah. He has lied.”

And if by Murjeeah it is meant Murjeeah Marhoomah then all of Ahl al-Sunnah wal Jama’ah is included in it. It is mentioned in al-Tamheed of Abu Shakoor Salimi:

“There are two types of Murjeeah. One is Murjeeah Marhoomah and it is the Companions of Rasulullah ﷺ. The second is Murjeeah Mal’oonah and these are those who say that sins do not matter and there is no punishment for them. ‘Uthman bin Abi Laila once wrote a letter to Imam Abu Hanifah asking if he is from the Murjeeah. Imam Abu Hanifah replied that there are two types of Murjeeah. One is Murjeeah Mal’oonah and I am not from them. The other is Murjeeah Marhoomah and I am from them. In fact, the Anbiya علیھم السلام were also the same. Do you not know the saying of ‘Isa علیه السلام, ‘If You (Allah) punish them, they are Your slaves after all, but if You forgive them, You are the Mighty, the Wise.’

Thus it is learnt that Imam Bukhari’s رحمة اللہ علیه saying regarding people not accepting the Hadith and opinion of Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه is absolutely false and baseless.

Thirdly, in ‘Uqud al-Jawahir al-Manifa, the book of Hafidh Mosuli, al-Du’afah is quoted to state:

“Yahya bin Mu’een has said, ‘I have not found anyone superior to Waqi’ and he used to give fatwa on the qawl of Abu Hanifah and would memorize all his Ahadith. He heard a lot of Ahadith from Abu Hanifah.’”

And it is stated in Manaqib Kurdi, pg 100:

“Sa’eed bin Yahya bin Humayri Wasti was an Imam and Hafidh of Hadith from Wasta. He has narrated from Imam Abu Hanifah and has acquired knowledge from him. He used to say that Imam Abu Hanifah is an ocean of knowledge.”

And in the same Manaqib on pg 19 it is stated:

“’Abdullah bin Yazeed al-Muqri Makki heard 900 Hadith from Imam Abu Hanifah.”

In Khayrat al-Hisaan, pg 23, it is stated:

“Ibn al-Mubarak said, ‘He (Abu Hanifah) used to be the one with most knowledge in Fiqh, and I have not seen anyone more knowledgeable than him in Fiqh. . . .And he is the most knowledgeable amongst them (Imam Malik and Sufyan) and better Muhaqqiq and Mudaqqiq.’”

“Abu Yusuf al-Thawri says, ‘I follow Imam Abu Hanifah in majority of issues.’”

“Yahya bin Sa’eed Qattan says, ‘We have not heard an opinion better than that of Imam Abu Hanifah and thus we give fatwa on his qawl.’”

“Ibn al-Mubarak says, ‘I have seen Mus’ir ask questions and benefit from the study circles of Imam Abu Hanifah.’”

In Khayrat al-Hisaan, pg 26, it is stated by Ibn Jarir رحمة اللہ علیه:

“The second chapter is regarding those who acquired Hadith and Fiqh from Abu Hanifah and to assess their number is impossible.”

“This is the reason why some ‘Ulema state that amongst the A’immah of Islam, no one has as many students as Imam Abu Hanifah.”

Look at this with justice and without any bias. Waqi’, Ibn Yahya al-Wasti, Ibn al-Mubarak, Sufyan al-Thawri, Mus’ir bin Kudam, Yahya bin Sa’eed al-Qattan and others have spoken so highly about the Fiqh and Opinion of Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه. Thousands have acquired Hadith and Fiqh from Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه and have become famous by his blessing in the world.

As is seen in Manaqib al-Kurdari and Manqib Mawafiq of Ibn Ahmad al-Makki.

Despite of this, Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه says,

“سکتوا عن رأيه و حدیثا”

If this is not out of malice due to Mathhab then what is it?

Fourthly, If, according to Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه, a narrator should be left and nothing should be taken from him if he is a Murjee, then due to what reason did Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه include in his Sahih Bukhari Ahadith from the deviant sects like Murjeeah, Nasibiyah, Kharijiyah, Shi’a, Jahmiyah, Qadariyah and others. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, in Muqaddamah Fath al-Bari, has written this in detail name by name. Over here we will mention the total number of people from four of these deviant sects. Murjeeah 31; Shi’a 2; Qadariyah 28; Nasibiyah 5.

Then according to the standards of Ghair Muqallideen, does Sahih Bukhari not become the weakest of all books?

Now that the topic of the narrators of Bukhari has been touched, it is only appropriate to talk about some of these narrators. The world knows that Sahih Bukhari has been accepted as ‘Asahhul Kutub’ unanimously (which means that as a collection it has collectively more sahih ahadith; this does not mean that each and every hadith of Bukhari is most authentic when compared to other ahadith found in different collections). It is without any doubt that Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has put in a lot of effort in it which is worthy of much praise. May Allah (swt) accept his effort.

However, it has many narrators on whom different types of Jarh have been done. Examples are given below:

(a) Kathhab: Extreme liar

(b) Yakthibul Hadith: Lies in matters of Hadith

(c) Yasriqul Hadith: Steals Hadith

(d) Yadha’ul Hadith: Invents Hadith

It is seen that the highest form of Jarh is also included. Fathul Bari and Meezanul I’tidaal can be referred for more details. They list more than 100 such narrators.

Despite these Jarh, Imam Bukhari did not consider these narrators among those from whom Hadith should not be taken. Instead, he accepted Ahadith from them. And despite this, other Muhadditheen did not deny Sahih Bukhari to be Asahhul Kutub.

Then what is the reason apart from Mathhabi malice that Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه did not take from Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه although no Jarh can be done on him according to the principles of this science?

Thus when this malice is established by clear evidence then what weight can the Jarh of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه have in regards to Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه.

Fifthly, if the Hadith of narrators, on whom Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has done Jarh, is to be rejected then there are many such narrators taken by Imams Muslim, Nasai, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood and others رحمة اللہ علیھم who should be rejected according to this rule. But Muhadditheen did not consider such narrators as rejected.

Then why should Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه be rejected due to the Jarh of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه?

In ‘Kitab al-Dhu’afa’, Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has said that Ovais Qarni’s sanad is doubtful (فی اسنادہ نظر) and this Jarh, according to the rules of Bukhari, is a serious one. However, Ovais Qarni cannot be considered to be Majruh.

Sixthly, if Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه relied on his own Jarh, then he would not have narrated from narrators on whom he has done Jarh. There are many such narrators in Bukhari whom Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has declared Majruh. Such narrators are listed below:

1. Usayd bin Zayd al-Jalal – Imam Dhahabi رحمة اللہ علیه has mentioned in al-Meezan, “It is strange that Imam Bukhari has taken narrations from this narrator in his Sahih and has also mentioned him in al-Dhu’afa.”

2. ‘Ayub bin ‘Aa’id – Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has mentioned in his book al-Dhu’afa, “He used to prefer the beliefs of Murjeeah despite being truthful.

3. Thabit bin Muhammad – Imam Dhahabi رحمة اللہ علیه has stated, “Although Imam Bukhari has narrated from this narrator, he has included him in his al-Dhu’afa.”

4. Zuhayr bin Muhammad – Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has said in his al-Dhu’afa, “People of Shaam have narrated Munkaraat from him.”

5. Ziyad bin Rasigh – Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه said his sanad is doubtful as is also found in al-Meezan.

6. ‘Ataa Ibn Maimoona – Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه mentioned in his al-Dhu’afa, “He used to like the beliefs of Qadariyyah.” And it is mentioned in the Muqaddama of Fathul Bari that many narrators were inclined towards Qadariyyah e.g. Hams bin Minhala. Imam Dhahabi رحمة اللہ علیه has said that he has been accused of being a Qadariyyah and he has Munkar Hadith and that is why Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has included him in al-Dhu’afa.

Look at this from an unbiased perspective. If Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه trusted his own Jarh, then why did he narrate from these people? When Imam Bukhari himself does not trust his own Jarh, then it is strange that the Muqallideen of Bukhari trust his Jarh and call Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه weak in Hadith.

Seventhly, if near those who object, the Jarh of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه, despite being inaccurate and against ‘usuls, is valid in the case of Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه, then why would Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه not be Majruh and rejected? Is Jarh on Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه not established by A’imma of Hadith? Of course they are. Some of them are listed below:

1. Imam Thehli رحمة اللہ علیه, the teacher of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه, has done serious Jarh on him. In Tabqat al-Shafi’iyyah, Vol.12, pg 12, it is stated, “Imam Thehli said, ‘He who visits the study circle of Imam Bukhari should not come to us as people of Baghdad have written to us that Imam Bukhari does kalam in the case of the words of the Qur’an (being created or uncreated) and we told him not to do so. However, he did not listen. Thus do not go to him.’”

Note that not only did Imam Thehli رحمة اللہ علیه tell people not to visit Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه but also said that he is an innovator who thinks that the words of the Qur’an, coming out of his mouth are words of the creation. Neither should anyone sit with him nor talk to him.

This warning of Imam Thehli رحمة اللہ علیه had such a huge impact on people that many stopped meeting Imam Bukhari.

In Tarikh Ibn Khalkaan, Vol.2 pg 123, it is stated, “When a difference arose between Imam Bukhari and Muhammad bin Yahya regarding the words of the Qur’an, he stopped people from going to Bukhari. So much so that Imam Bukhari was compelled to migrate from Nishapur and, apart from Imam Muslim, many people boycotted him.”

2. Imam Muslim رحمة اللہ علیه, despite his closeness to Imam Bukhari, has not narrated a single Hadith from him in his Sahih Muslim. In fact, in the discussion of “’an’ana” Hadith, he has referred to Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه with the word “’asawna” (which means he opposes him in this matter) and has severely criticized him. For reference see Muslim Vol. 1, pg 21.

3. Abu Thur’ah and Abu Hatim رحمة اللہ علیھما have not taken from Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه either. In Tabqaat al-Shafi’iyyah, Vol.1 pg 190, it is mentioned, “Abu Thur’ah and Abu Hatim have left Imam Bukhari because of the difference in the case of the Words of the Qur’an.”

In Meezanul I’tidaal it is stated, “. . . .Abu Thur’ah and Abu Hatim did not narrate from the Imam Bukhari, the student of ‘Ali Ibn al-Madini, because of the dispute regarding the Words of the Qur’an.”

And Abdur Rahman Ibn Abi Hatim رحمة اللہ علیه says, “Abu Thur’ah left Imam Bukhari due to this reason.”

4. Ibn Mundah رحمة اللہ علیه has categorized Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه amongst the Mudalliseen (such a narrator who conceals the name of his Shaykh or the Shaykh of his Shaykh) in Shurutul A’immah. Thus he stated, “Bukhari has narrated in his books in these ways: ‘I said to fulan (an unnamed person)’ which is permitted, and ‘Fulan has said this,’ and this is Tadlees.”

It is obvious that Tadlees is a greater defect when compared to weak memory as it is a voluntary act and there is fraud and deception in it. That is why Shamsi has said, “Tadlees is Haram near the A’immah.” (Muqaddama Usul al-Shaykh al-Muhaddith al-Dehalawi ‘alal Mishkat, pg 2)

Please note, Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has narrated about 30 Ahadith from Imam Thehli رحمة اللہ علیه but has not mentioned the name with which he was famous because was strict aggression between Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه and Imam Thehli رحمة اللہ علیه. In Tareekh Ibn Khalqan vol.2 pg 134, it is stated, “Imam Bukhari narrated from Imam Thehli in 30 places and has not mentioned his name anywhere. He should have said, ‘Muhammad bin Yahya Thehli narrated to me’ but instead said ‘Muhammad narrated to me.’ And in some places he has mentioned him as Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah’ (‘Abdullah was the name of his grandfather) and in some places he attributed it to his great grandfather.”

5. Darqutni and Hakim رحمة اللہ علیھما have said that Imam Bukhari’s رحمة اللہ علیه narrating Hadith from Ishaq bin Muhammad bin Ismail has been considered to be something with defect. In Muqaddama Fathul Bari pg 451 it is stated, “Darqutni and Hakim said that there is an allegation on Bukhari in narration of Hadith.”

Darqutni and Hakim رحمة اللہ علیھما mean that Ishaq bin Muhammad has been considered trustworthy by Bukhari whereas he is weak. He could not differentiate between Thiqah and Da’eef. And Isma’il رحمة اللہ علیه has shown astonishment that Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه considers the Munqata’ narration of Abu Salih Juhani as Sahih but considers Mutassil as Da’eef.

It is written in Muqaddama Fathul Bari pg 483, “Ismail accused Bukhari and was surprised that why does Bukhari consider the Ahadith of Abu Salih Juhani as evidence when it is not Mutassil.”

He added, “It is more astonishing that Bukhari considers Munqata’ Hadith as authority and Mutassil as Da’eef.”

6. Thahabi رحمة اللہ علیه has also shown bewilderment on some of his works. He writes in the biography of Usayd bin Zayd al-Jamal, “It is astonishing that Bukhari considers him to be Da’eef yet narrates from him.”

What can one say about the memory of a person who considers a narrator as weak and yet narrates from him in Asahhul Kutub!

Those who object should do some justice. If Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه is weak due to the Jarh of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه then why would Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه not be Majruh on the basis of the Jarh of Ibn Mundah رحمة اللہ علیه and Thehli رحمة اللہ علیه?

7. By the yardstick used by those who object (on Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه), Imam Bukhari himself is proven to be Majruh. Thus what effect can the Jarh of a Majruh have on Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه?

It is sad that Ghair Muqallideen attack Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه due to mere jealousy and do not realize that they live in glass houses.

If Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه will be called Da’eef, then all the Muhaditheen of the world will become Da’eef and rejected in matters of Hadith.

Note: It should be clear that these Jarh have been noted down just to answer the opponents. This is just how Mawlana Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Muhaddith Dehlawi, in his book “Tohfa” has adopted an offensive position (as opposed to defensive) against Shi’a. Otherwise, in truth, our Aqeedah is that Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه and Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه are trustworthy, truthful, just, with strong memory and devout worshippers (of Allah). None of them is Majruh. And Hadith narrated by them is accepted. The reasons due to which we do not accept the Jarh on Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه are the same due to which we do not accept the Jarh on Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه.

رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالْأِيمَانِ وَلا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلاًّ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَؤُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ

The above material is an excerpt from the book, ‘Imam Abu Hanifah par Ai’terazaat kay Jawabaat’ (Responding to the Objections against Imam Abu Hanifah) pg 41-54

Quelle :

Refutation of the Christian Claim

Veröffentlicht: 18. Dezember 2012 in Refutations of Christians

A Detailed Paper Refuting Christian Claim that the Quran testifies the Bible to be Uncorrupted

By Ebrahim Saifuddin


1. Introduction
2. List of Verses in Ascending Order
3. The Muslim Belief
4. Verses Quoted by Christians
(a) General Verses Quoted
(b) Verses with “Saddaqa”
(c) Verses where Quran tells Prophet Muhammad ﷺ about the Bible
(d) Quran calls the Bible ‘al-Ththikra’
(e) Bring forth like Quran and Torah
5. Conclusion

1. Introduction
In this paper we will only analyze the Quranic Verses given by the Christian missionaries claiming that the Quran testifies that the entire Bible is the uncorrupted Word of God. The Quran being the Last and Final Testament mentions the revelations sent to Moses علیه السلام (Torah), David علیه السلام (Zabur) and Jesus علیه السلام (Injeel). It is obligatory on a Muslim to believe that these books were revealed onto these prophets علیھم السلام who were chosen and sent by Allah (swt). Today our Christian brothers claim that the books which they possess are in the pristine form just the way they were revealed from Allah (swt) to Moses, David and Jesus علیھم السلام. They then try to prove using the Quran that even the Quran testifies that which they possess is the uncorrupted Word of God. However, when we read the Quran we see that it clearly teaches that these books in fact got corrupted.

2. List of Verses in Ascending Order
The list is given in the format ‘Chapter:Verse (Section of Paper it appears in)’. Example Chapter 2 Verse 41 appears in the section 4b and hence is written in the list as: ‘2:41(4b)’

The List

2:41 (4b); 2:89 (4b); 2:91 (4b); 2:97 (4b); 2:101 (4b); 2:113 (4c);
3:3 (4b); 3:39 (4b); 3:50 (4b); 3:81 (4b);
4:47 (4b);
5:46-48 (4b); 5:66 (4a); 5:68 (4c);
6:92 (4b);
10:37 (4b); 10:94 (4c);
12:111 (4b);
16:43-44 (4c, 4d);
21:7 (4d); 21:105 (4d);
28:48-49 (4e);
29:46 (4a);
35:31 (4b);
37:52 (4b);
40:53-54 (4d);
46:12 (4b); 46:30 (4b);
61:6 (4b)

3. The Muslim Belief
Before I begin with the analysis of all the verses in the Quran which the Christians quote in their defense, let me in short state the basic Muslim belief regarding the Bible which Christendom possesses.

Muslims do not believe that from cover to cover, the Bible is the complete Word of God. The Muslims also do not believe that from cover to cover the Bible is corrupted. What the Muslims do believe is that while there is part of the Word of God in the Bible, the other part is corrupted. To explain it in simpler terms; for example if the Bible has a scientific or historic accuracy, the Muslim will be open to accept that this probably could be the preserved Word of God but on the other hand a Muslim will never accept that the scientific or historic inaccuracies in the Bible are also from God.

4. Explaining Verses Quoted by Christians
I will use the translation of Abdullah Yusuf Ali throughout this article unless stated otherwise.

4a. General Verses Quoted
This is a list of the general verses quoted by the Christians to try and prove that the Quran confirms the entire Bible which the Christians used to have in those days.

These verses are:

Chapter 29 Verse 46
Chapter 5 Verse 66

Chapter 29 Verse 46

And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with means better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong (and injury): but say, “We believe in the revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; Our Allah and your Allah is one; and it is to Him we bow (in Islam).”

This verse is often quoted by the Christians to prove that the Quran teaches that the Bible is uncorrupted. When we read this verse we see that Allah (swt) tells us to say that we believe in the revelation which has come to the People of the Book. As stated before, it is an article of faith for a Muslim to believe that the Torah, Zabur and Injeel are Books revealed onto the respective prophets علیھم السلام but no where does this verse say that we believe in what the Christians and the Jews possessed at that time. It is a general statement that a Muslim is to believe that Torah, Zabur and Injeel were revealed by Allah (swt).

Moreover as one can see, in the beginning of the verse, Allah (swt) encourages us to debate and have dialogue with the People of the Book. Now if the Quran was testifying that the Books which they have at that point in time were in their pure form and that they were on the right path then why would the Muslims be encouraged to have a dialogue and debate with the People of the Book? Obviously the dialogue was to help them realize the wrong which they were doing so that they could come onto the right path. The path as prescribed by Allah (swt). The path one can walk on only by accepting the uncorrupted Book – The Quran.

Chapter 5 Verse 66

If only they had stood fast by the Law, the Gospel, and all the revelation that was sent to them from their Lord, they would have enjoyed happiness from every side. There is from among them a party on the right course: but many of them follow a course that is evil.

This noble verse of the Quran informs us that the People of the Book are not holding on to the Torah and the Injeel. Allah (swt) says that if they were following the Torah and the Injeel then they would have enjoyed happiness. Now the Christian missionaries claim that the Quran certifies that the entire Bible is uncorrupted. As we can see in this verse the Quran is actually telling us that they are not following the Torah and the Injeel. Under what circumstances would they not be following it? The only reason why they would not be following it is if they would not have the complete original books. So this verse actually informs us that they do not have the uncorrupted version of the books. Now the latter part of the verse states that among the People of the Book there are a few who are on the right course.

To explain the latter part of the verse, notice in the initial part it says ‘and all the revelation that was sent to them from their Lord’. This phrase includes the revelation that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is the Messenger of Allah (swt) and all that was revealed to him. So the verse not only talks about them following the Torah and the Injeel in its pure form, but also talks about them following Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Now in the latter part of the verse it says that there are some who are on the right course, which means that there are some who are from among the people of the Book who believe in Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.

Some might say that those from the People of the Book who have accepted Islam would be referred to as Muslims and not as ‘among the People of the Book’. However that claim of theirs is based on nothing but misinterpretations and misinformation. The Quran gives similar messages throughout. One such similar message is seen in the following verse:

And there are, certainly, among the People of the Book, those who believe in Allah, in the revelation to you, and in the revelation to them, bowing in humility to Allah: They will not sell the Signs of Allah for a miserable gain! For them is a reward with their Lord, and Allah is swift in account. – [Chapter 3 Verse 199]

Notice how this verse also uses the phrase ‘among the People of the Book’ when referring to those from among them who believe in Allah (swt) and in the revelation sent to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. Hence they would be Muslims as well but the Quran yet refers to them as ‘among the People of the Book’. Thus it becomes apparent what Allah (swt) is referring to in Chapter 5 Verse 66.

4b. Verses with “Saddaqa”
The Christian Missionaries quote the following verses claiming that these verses contain the root word of ‘confirm’ i.e. ‘Saddaqa’ and thus establish that the Bible from cover to cover is uncorrupted.

The verses they quote are as following:

Chapter 35 Verse 31
Chapter 10 Verse 37
Chapter 12 Verse 111
Chapter 3 Verse 3
Chapter 5 Verse 46 – 48
Chapter 2 Verse 41
Chapter 2 Verse 89
Chapter 2 Verse 91
Chapter 2 Verse 97
Chapter 2 Verse 101
Chapter 3 Verse 39
Chapter 3 Verse 50
Chapter 3 Verse 81
Chapter 4 Verse 47
Chapter 6 Verse 92
Chapter 37 Verse 52
Chapter 46 Verse 12
Chapter 46 Verse 30
Chapter 61 Verse 6

The word Saddaqa means:

To say (tell, speak) the truth; to be true, truthful, sincere. – [Al Mawrid Arabic to English Dictionary, pg 691]

So here we see that the Quran is ‘speaking the truth’ about the previous revelations. What the Christians had with themselves in those days was corrupted and the Quran is speaking the truth regarding those scriptures. In almost all the verses it is stated that the Quran is ‘confirming the previous revelations’. So it confirms that which was revealed previously by speaking the truth regarding it. The Quran verifies that which is preserved in the Bible ‘to be true’. It is ‘truthful’ and ‘sincere’ to the previous revelations by Allah (swt) and not to the corruptions made by man. An analysis of all these verses will show that the Quran only confirms that which was revealed – not that which is corruption. By confirming that which was revealed then Quran by default exposes the corruption.

Chapter 35 Verse 31

That which We have revealed to thee of the Book is the Truth,- confirming what was (revealed) before it: for Allah is assuredly- with respect to His Servants – well acquainted and Fully Observant.

This is another verse quoted by the Christian missionaries a lot. However we see that this verse again does not state that the Bible in the hands of the Jews and the Christians of that time was in its pristine form. What the Quran states is that it is confirming that which was revealed before – not the Bible that they hold but confirming only that which was revealed before it by Allah (swt). Hence do note that the Quran is speaking of only confirming that which was revealed before by Allah (swt) and it is not confirming the corrupted part of the Bible.

So how does the Quran confirm what was revealed before? It does so simply by stating or repeating that what was revealed to the concerned prophets and correcting that which has been corrupted. For example, in the story of the Original Sin as seen in the Bible, the blame is put on the woman and not the man. The Quran however corrects this mistake and says that both of them are equally responsible.

Chapter 10 Verse 37

This Qur’an is not such as can be produced by other than Allah; on the contrary it is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book – wherein there is no doubt – from the Lord of the worlds.

This verse is seen to again carry the same meaning as Chapter 35 Verse 31. This meaning is further enhanced when we read the verse preceding it which I will quote below:

But most of them follow nothing but fancy: truly fancy can be of no avail against truth. Verily Allah is well aware of all that they do.– [Chapter 10 Verse 36]

We see that the Quran is referring to those know follow fancy which Allah (swt) states is of no avail against the truth. After that Allah (swt) reveals that the Quran is from Him and it confirms the previous revelations. This, as explained earlier, means that the Quran confirms it by repeating that which was revealed in their respective times i.e. repeats what was revealed, the way it was revealed onto Moses, David and Jesus علیھم السلام.

Chapter 12 Verse 111

There is, in their stories, instruction for men endued with understanding. It is not a tale invented, but a confirmation of what went before it,- a detailed exposition of all things, and a guide and a mercy to any such as believe.

Notice again in this verse of the Quran, the message that what the Jews and Christians of those times read is uncorrupted, is simply missing. The name of the Surah in which this verse exists is Surah Yusuf (Joseph) and it mainly deals with the stories of the past. Now notice the Quran stats that in the stories of the prophets علیھم السلام, there is an instruction. It states that it is a confirmation of what was before it. How is the Quran confirming? Using what methodology? The methodology of narrating the stories in their pristine forms and informing the People of the Book that this is how the story went and this is what was revealed. So whatever is true in the Bible is confirmed and whatever is not is automatically corrected. This is the simple methodology used by Allah (swt). He simply repeats the events as they occurred thus confirming the truth in the Bible and correcting the errors. The Quran never states that it is confirming the Bible which the Christians read. It is stating over and over again that it is only confirming that which was revealed before by Allah (swt) – only that part.

Chapter 3 Verse 3

It is He Who sent down to thee (step by step), in truth, the Book, confirming what went before it; and He sent down the Law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus) before this, as a guide to mankind, and He sent down the criterion (of judgment between right and wrong).

This is a really interesting verse and actually proves to the contrary what the Christian missionaries wish to prove. This verse also proves the above explanations which I have been giving regarding how the Quran confirms and the methodology it uses to confirm the previous scriptures.

Notice that Allah (swt) states in this verse that the Quran has been sent as a Criterion. When one has a criterion then one judges according to it. So the Quran confirms what was sent down before it by becoming the Criterion to judge. Hence Muslims are to judge the Bible according to the Criterion. That which is attested by the Quran (The Criterion) that is accepted by the Muslims as to be the Word of God in the Bible. That what is corrected, we consider it to be a human fabrication.

Chapter 5 Verses 46 – 48

And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah.

Let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah hath revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel.

To thee We sent the Scripture in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it, and guarding it in safety: so judge between them by what Allah hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging from the Truth that hath come to thee. To each among you have we prescribed a law and an open way. If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah; it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which ye dispute;

Taking verse 46 into consideration we see that Allah (swt) only talks about Jesus علیه السلام being sent as a prophet. This verse itself does not prove that the Bible is uncorrupted. However the Christian missionaries say that they have same Torah today as it was during the time of Jesus and the evidence they give is the existence of the ‘Septuagint’. According to theCatholic Encyclopedia:

“The three most celebrated manuscripts of the Septuagint known are the Vatican, “Codex Vaticanus” (fourth century); the Alexandrian, “Codex Alexandrinus” (fifth century), now in the British Museum, London; and that of Sinai, “Codex Sinaiticus” (fourth century), found by Tischendorf in the convent of St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai, in 1844 and 1849, now part at Leipzig and in part in St. Petersburg; they are all written in uncials.”

Hence we see that the Septuagint today is not from during the time of Jesus. The earliest manuscript dates to the fourth century some 300 years after Jesus. Thus no Christian can claim that the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, and Numbers) which they have today in the Bible is the same as to what was present in the Septuagint during the time of Jesus.

Now in verse 47 we find that the verse says “let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah hath revealed therein”. Any person having the slightest comprehension skills would be able to tell that the verse is talking about what Allah (swt) has revealed in the Gospel – not the entire Bible. However if we take into consideration that the verse is referring to the Bible, even so the verse talks of letting them judge according to what Allah (swt) has revealed and not according to the corruption made by man.

Now if the Quran meant to preach that the Bible which the Christians hold in their hands is pure from corruption then it would have said “let the Christians judge by the Gospel” (or “Bible” – whichever of the two words; it does not matter in the present context). However notice that the verse does not state that but says “judge by what Allah hath revealed therein”. In other words do not judge by what the human hands have written but only by what Allah (swt) has revealed.

The key to these two verses rests in the next verse i.e. verse 48. In this verse we can see that Allah (swt) states that the Quran is sent in truth, confirming that what came before it and guarding it in safety. The Arabic word used here is “Muhaymin” which means ‘Guardian’, ‘Protector’ and ‘Trustworthy’. According to Al-Mawrid Arabic to English dictionary the word means ‘dominant, dominating, predominant, preponderant, prevailing, controlling, commanding, governing, reigning, ruling; (absolute) master, ruler, overlord’ – [Al Mawrid Arabic to English Dictionary pg. 1135].

Allah (swt) thus says that the Quran is a guardian over the previous scriptures. It is guarding them. What is it guarding it against? It is guarding it from the corruptions that the human hands have done in the Bible. It is correcting the corruptions made in the Bible and thus protecting it. The role of a guardian is to guide and correct the errors.

Many Christian missionaries falsely claim that “muhaymin” was understood by Muslims of the past and present to mean that the Bible in the form it was in those days was uncorrupted. We will check some of the sources of the past and present to see whether they really believed the Bible in those days to be uncorrupted.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
“(and Muhayminan over it) means entrusted over it, according to Sufyan Ath-Thawri who narrated it from Abu Ishaq from At-Tamimi from Ibn `Abbas. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Muhaymin is, ‘the Trustworthy’. Allah says that the Quran is trustworthy over every Divine Book that preceded it.” This was reported from `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Mujahid, Muhammad bin Ka`b, `Atiyyah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. Ibn Jarir said, “The Quran is trustworthy over the Books that preceded it. Therefore, whatever in these previous Books conforms to the Quran is true, and whatever disagrees with the Qur’an is false.” Al-Walibi said that Ibn `Abbas said that Muhayminan means, ‘Witness’. Mujahid, Qatadah and As-Suddi said the same. Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said that Muhayminan means, ‘dominant over the previous Scriptures’. These meanings are similar, as the word Muhaymin includes them all. Consequently, the Quran is trustworthy, a witness, and dominant over every Scripture that preceded it. This Glorious Book, which Allah revealed as the Last and Final Book, is the most encompassing, glorious and perfect Book of all times. The Quran includes all the good aspects of previous Scriptures and even more, which no previous Scripture ever contained. This is why Allah made it trustworthy, a witness and dominant over all Scriptures.”

Tanwir al-Miqbas min Tafsir Ibn Abbas:
“(And unto the have We revealed the Scripture) We have sent you Gabriel with the Qur’an (with the Truth) to make plain the Truth and falsehood, (confirming) the statement of Allah’s divine Oneness and some laws (whatever Scripture was before it) whatever Scriptures were before it, (and a watcher over it) a witness upon all the Scriptures before it; it is also said: a witness upon the ruling of stoning; and it is also said: a watcher over all previous Scriptures.”

It is thus seen that Allah (swt) has kept the Quran as a guardian over the previous scriptures so as to guard what was revealed originally thus showing to us that which is corruption in the Bible.

I will now quote some of the Muslims of the present times to see whether they understand that this verse states that the Bible was uncorrupted or that is got corrupted overtime.

Abdullah Yusuf Ali:
“After the corruption of the older revelation, the Quran comes with a twofold purpose: (1) to confirm the true and original Message and (2) to guard it or act as a check to its interpretation. The Arabic word ‘Muhaymin’ is very comprehensive in meaning. It means one who safeguards, watches over, stands witness, preserves and upholds. The Quran safeguards “the Book”, for it has preserved within it the teachings of all the former Books. It watches over these Books in the sense that it corroborates the Word of Allah which has remained intact in them. It stands as a witness because it bears testimony to the Word of Allah contained in these Books and helps to sort it out from the interpretations and commentaries of the people which were mixed with it; what is confirmed by the Quran is the Word of Allah and what is against it is that of the people.”

Muhammad Asad (His translation is often quoted by Christian missionaries):
“The participle ‘muhaymin’ is derived from the quadrilateral verb ‘haymana’, ‘he watched [over a thing]’ or ‘controlled [it]’, and is used here to describe the Quran as the determinant factor in deciding what is genuine and what is false in the earlier Scriptures.”

Ma’ariful Quran:
“The address is to the Holy Prophet ﷺ saying that to him Allah has revealed the Quran which confirms the Torah and Injeel, Books previous to it, and is their custodian as well. This is because, after the people of the Torah altered the Torah and the people of the Injeel made changes in the Injeel,it was the Quran alone which turned out to be the kind overseer and protector which exposed the alterations made by them, lit up truth and reality in their proper perspective. Even today the true teachings of the Torah and Injeel still survive through the Quran.”

So we see the whether we look at the Muslims of the past or the present, they understood the term ‘muhaymin’ to mean the same and the interpretation of the verse has always been the same without any changes.

Some Christian missionaries bring to notice that one of the names of Allah (swt) is “AL-MUHAYMIN”. So let us see whether the meaning and explanation of the word “muhaymin” fits with harmony in both the verse and as one of the attributes of Allah (swt).

Muhaymin, according to early Muslims as taken from Ibn Kathir, means the following: Witness and Trustworthy. This word also means ‘Guardian’, ‘Supervisor’ or ‘Protector’. Now do these fit Allah (swt) and the verse in harmony? Yes!

Allah (swt) is our Guardian and hence has given us guidelines to correct ourselves just the way the Quran is the guardian over the Bible, correcting it. Allah (swt) is the Protector and has given us a way to protect ourselves by correcting our mistakes just as the way the Quran corrects the Bible in order to protect what was revealed in the previous scriptures. Allah (swt) is Witness to all that is being done just like the Quran is a witness to the changes made in the Bible thus correcting them.

Hence we see that the definition fits perfectly to Allah (swt) as well as the Quran thus refuting any claims that would suggest otherwise. The Quran is now a guardian over what was revealed before and thus people can learn the truth in the previous scriptures by looking at those parts which the Quran confirms and those which the Quran rejects.

Chapter 2 Verse 41

And believe in what I reveal, confirming the revelation which is with you, and be not the first to reject Faith therein, nor sell My Signs for a small price; and fear Me, and Me alone.

When we read the verse preceding this, we find that these verses refer to the Children of Israel where Allah (swt) asks them to fulfill the Covenant. Then in this verse Allah (swt) is telling them to believe in what He reveals which confirms the revelation which is with them. So the Quran again is confirming that which is a revelation and not that which is corrupted by human hands. Then we read the next verse:

And cover not Truth with falsehood, nor conceal the Truth when ye know (what it is).

Thus it becomes apparent that the Quran is telling the Jews not to conceal the Truth. How would the Truth be concealed? The Truth would be concealed by following human corruptions rather than following what Allah (swt) has revealed.

Chapter 2 Verse 89

And when there comes to them a Book from Allah, confirming what is with them,- although from of old they had prayed for victory against those without Faith,- when there comes to them that which they (should) have recognized, they refuse to believe in it but the curse of Allah is on those without Faith.

Once again this verse is seen to hold the same meaning as that of ‘Saddaqa’ explained above. The Quran which is from Allah (swt) is confirming the truth that which is with the People of the Book. Over and over again we find that the Noble Quran tells us that it is confirming the truth in the previous revelations. The Quran is speaking the truth about what is with the People of the Book. Therefore it is clear that the Quran is not testifying that the entire Bible is preserved but is only confirming the truth that is with the People of the Book thus naturally correcting the corrupted part.

Chapter 2 Verse 91

When it is said to them, “Believe in what Allah Hath sent down, “they say, “We believe in what was sent down to us:” yet they reject all besides, even if it be Truth confirming what is with them. Say: “Why then have ye slain the prophets of Allah in times gone by, if ye did indeed believe?”

This verse is connected to the one explained above. The Quran says that the People of the Book reject the Truth which is confirming that which is with them. What does the Truth confirm? The Truth would but natural confirm that which is the truth. Thus as explained above many times in this section, the Quran, being the Truth, confirms the Truth that is with the People of the Book and not that which is falsehood created by human intervention.

Chapter 2 Verse 97

Say: Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel-for he brings down the (revelation) to thy heart by Allah’s will, a confirmation of what went before, and guidance and glad tidings for those who believe,-

This verse is from the same Surah as the previous two verses and talks about those who are enemies to Gabriel. Gabriel is an angel who brought the revelations to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. The revelation is referred to as a confirmation of what went before. This means that this revelation (Quran) confirms what actually happened before thus exposing the falsehood that might be there in the minds or the scriptures of the People of the Book. Further the Quran is called ‘guidance’ for those who believe and if the purpose of the Quran was to state that the entire Bible is uncorrupted then it would not refer to itself as guidance to those who believe because the Bible would still be guidance to those who do not believe.

Chapter 2 Verse 101

And when there came to them a messenger from Allah, confirming what was with them, a party of the people of the Book threw away the Book of Allah behind their backs, as if (it had been something) they did not know!

We find that again the same word is used in this verse of the Quran. Thus when Allah (swt) sent his Messenger ﷺ to confirm the truth in what was with the People of the Book (here the verse refers to the Jews), some of them who realized that it was by default exposing the falsehood, refused to consider what the Messenger ﷺ was saying by pretending as if they do not even know what their books had in it. If the Quran was testifying that their scripture is in its pristine form then the Jews would not have pretended as if they knew not what was in their scriptures. The reason why they pretended as such was because they saw that an unlettered Prophet ﷺ was bringing out the truth in their books and by default exposing the falsehood. The Jews knew that if they would look at the truth in their books then it would prove that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was the Messenger of Allah (swt) and thus they chose to ignore their books completely.

Chapter 3 Verse 39

While he was standing in prayer in the chamber, the angels called unto him: “Allah doth give thee glad tidings of Yahya, witnessing the truth of a Word from Allah, and (be besides) noble, chaste, and a prophet,- of the (goodly) company of the righteous.”

Basically this verse has nothing to do with whether the Quran testifies that the entire Bible is in its pristine form or not. However Christians use this verse to state that the word ‘Saddaqa’ in this verse means to ‘confirm’ and thus they try to derive a conclusion that the Quran confirms the entire Bible.

Let us apply the same explanation which I have been giving regarding this root word ‘Saddaqa’ to this verse and see if the meaning of this verse changes. Yahya (as) or John the Baptist as the Christians call him was supposed to confirm the truth of a Word from Allah. So he was supposed to confirm the truth not the falsehood just as Quran confirms the truth and not the falsehood in the Bible.

Chapter 3 Verse 50

(I have come to you), to attest the Law which was before me. And to make lawful to you part of what was (Before) forbidden to you; I have come to you with a Sign from your Lord. So fear Allah, and obey me.

This verse again has nothing to do with the Quran confirming anything. However the Christians quote it due to the same root word ‘Saddaqa’ in it. Once again if we use the same application of the word ‘Saddaqa’ in this verse, it only means that Jesus (as) was confirming the truth which came before him and not the falsehood, if any, in the Torah at that time.

Chapter 3 Verse 81

Behold! Allah took the covenant of the prophets, saying: “I give you a Book and Wisdom; then comes to you a messenger, confirming what is with you; do ye believe in him and render him help.” Allah said: “Do ye agree, and take this my Covenant as binding on you?” They said: “We agree.” He said: “Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses.”

Once again this verse is quoted by the Christian missionaries due to the root word. If again we apply the same definition of ‘Saddaqa’ i.e. ‘to speak the truth’, ‘to be true’ etc to this verse, we will find that it fits in most appropriately. Here Allah (swt) is telling the prophets that He will give to them a Book and Wisdom and then later a messenger will confirm (speak the truth, be true, sincere) that which is with the prophets then will they believe in him or not. Again the deception which the missionaries are trying to create falls apart.

Chapter 4 Verse 47

O ye People of the Book! believe in what We have (now) revealed, confirming what was (already) with you, before We change the face and fame of some (of you) beyond all recognition, and turn them hindwards, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers, for the decision of Allah Must be carried out.

This is yet another verse with the root word ‘Saddaqa’ in it. So is the Quran stating that it confirms the entire Bible? Not in the least. The Quran yet again speaks the truth and confirms the truth in that which was with them. In the next verse we see that Allah (swt) states “Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him”.

As we all know the Bible does ascribe partners to Allah (swt) and Allah (swt) is condemning such an act labeling it as unforgivable. Now if the Quran was suggesting that the entire Bible was uncorrupted then the Quran would not condemn their fundamental belief. The fact that the Quran is condemning it means that the Quran confirms the truth in the Bible and by default exposes the falsehood.

Chapter 6 Verse 92

And this is a Book which We have sent down, bringing blessings, and confirming (the revelations) which came before it: that thou mayest warn the mother of cities and all around her. Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in this (Book), and they are constant in guarding their prayers.

This verse again like the numerous verses above says that the Quran confirms (speaks the truth regarding, is true, sincere) to what came before it. Hence it only confirms that which was actually revealed by Allah (swt) during the time of Moses (as) and during the time of Jesus (as). It in no way means that it is to confirm that the entire Bible is a hundred percent the Word of God.

Chapter 37 Verse 52

“Who used to say, ‘what! art thou amongst those who bear witness to the Truth (of the Message)?’”

Similar to the previous verses this again talks of confirming the Truth – not the falsehood. By confirming the Truth, falsehood by default gets exposed. That is exactly what the role of the Quran is – to confirm the truth in the Bible and thus by default expose the falsehood present in it.

Chapter 46 Verse 12

And before this, was the Book of Moses as a guide and a mercy: And this Book confirms (it) in the Arabic tongue; to admonish the unjust, and as Glad Tidings to those who do right.

The Quran again declares that it confirm the Book of Moses and its methodology to do so is that it speaks of that which was revealed at the time of Moses (in the Arabic language i.e. language of the Quran), thus correcting by default that which is corrupted.

Chapter 46 Verse 30

They said, “O our people! We have heard a Book revealed after Moses, confirming what came before it: it guides (men) to the Truth and to a Straight Path.”

This verse is regarding the Jinns. The Jinns who heard the Quran went to their people and told them about the Quran which was revealed after Moses. They tell them that it confirms what came before it and that it guide to the Truth. The fact that it guides to the Truth means that the Quran confirms that which is true. But natural, Truth confirms the truth only. Truth can never confirm the falsehood hence the Quran is a guide to the Truth and thus will bring out what is true in the Bible while by default exposing that which is a corruption.

Chapter 61 Verse 6

And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: “O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah (sent) to you, confirming the Law (which came) before me, and giving Glad Tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad.” But when he came to them with Clear Signs, they said, “this is evident sorcery!”

Due to the usage of the root word ‘Saddaqa’ the Christian missionaries try to use this verse as a support for their misinterpretation of the Quran. By Jesus saying that he is here to confirm the Law, it does not mean that everything is true. By confirming again we see that it means that Jesus is speaking the truth regarding what was revealed to Moses. Hence let us assume that the Torah was uncorrupted at that time. If so, Jesus would speak that which was revealed in the Torah and it would naturally confirm what was in the scriptures. If now we assume that the Torah was corrupted, Jesus would still speak that which was revealed during the time of Moses, thus confirming what was revealed to Moses and by default exposing the falsehood.

4c. Verses where Quran tells Prophet Muhammad ﷺ about the Bible
The following are the verses in which the Quran asks Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to ‘refer’ to the People of the Book.

These verses are:

Chapter 10 Verse 94
Chapter 16 Verse 43 – 44
Chapter 2 Verse 113
Chapter 5 Verse 68

Chapter 10 Verse 94

If thou wert in doubt as to what We have revealed unto thee, then ask those who have been reading the Book from before thee: the Truth hath indeed come to thee from thy Lord: so be in no wise of those in doubt.

When we read the verse preceding this we find that Allah (swt) is telling Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in the Quran regarding the Children of Israel and how much Allah (swt) blessed these people.

We settled the Children of Israel in a beautiful dwelling-place, and provided for them sustenance of the best: it was after knowledge had been granted to them, that they fell into schisms. Verily Allah will judge between them as to the schisms amongst them, on the Day of Judgment. – [Chapter 10 Verse 93]

Then in this verse Allah (swt) tells Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to ask them if he does not believe in what is revealed. So Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is instructed to ask regarding this particular information if he does not believe what Allah (swt) has revealed to him. Hence he would ask the Children of Israel whether they were blessed by Allah (swt) or whether disputes did occur between them. This therefore does not prove that the Quran endorses the entire Bible to be the complete Word of God.

Chapter 16 Verses 43 – 44

And before thee also the messengers We sent were but men, to whom We granted inspiration: if ye realize this not, ask of those who possess the Message.

(We sent them) with Clear Signs and Books of dark prophecies; and We have sent down unto thee (also) the Message; that thou mayest explain clearly to men what is sent for them, and that they may give thought.

Again we see a similar message in the Quran. In verse 43, the Quran mentions that Allah (swt) sent messengers before Prophet Muhammad ﷺ who were none but men and they were given the inspiration. Then in the latter part of the verse it tells Prophet Muhammad ﷺ that he can confirm with the People who possess this Message. So what is Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to confirm? Simply, that whether men were sent as messengers or not. Further one can ask whether these men were granted any inspiration. So for a moment if we assume that the Bible in those days was corrupted, then does this verse fall apart? No! The Bible being corrupted has this Message in it that men with inspiration were sent in the past.

In verse 44 we find that again a similar message is given. Allah (swt) states that these messengers of the past were sent with clear signs and books. Then Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is told that he is also given the Message so that he can ‘explain clearly to men what is sent for them’. This proves that the Bible was corrupted and its message was distorted hence the Quran has been sent to ‘explain clearly to mean what is sent for them’.

Also see this verse
16:43 under the next section titled ‘Quran calls the Bible al-Ththikra’

Chapter 2 Verse 113

The Jews say: “The Christians have naught (to stand) upon; and the Christians say: “The Jews have naught (To stand) upon.” Yet they (Profess to) study the (same) Book. Like unto their word is what those say who know not; but Allah will judge between them in their quarrel on the Day of Judgment.

This verse of the Quran refers to Christians and Jews saying that they read the Scripture yet they argue that they are right and the other is wrong. In simpler terms, they both read the same books and yet they fight accusing each other for being on the wrong path. So this verse has nothing to do with the Quran testifying that the entire Bible is the uncorrupted word of God.

Chapter 5 Verse 68

Say: “O People of the Book! Ye have no ground to stand upon unless ye stand fast by the Law, the Gospel, and all the revelation that has come to you from your Lord.” It is the revelation that cometh to thee from thy Lord, that increaseth in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy. But sorrow thou not over (these) people without Faith.

The message in this verse is very clear. The People of the Book are told that they should follow the Law and the Gospel and all the revelation that has come to them. This includes the Quran. Now if the Quran is testifying that the entire Bible is uncorrupted then why would they be required to stand fast by the Quran? However if the message in the Quran is that the Bible indeed get corrupted then by holding fast to the Quran they can hold fast to the Law and the Gospel because the Quran confirms the truth in these books and thus the true revelations of the Law and the Gospel are preserved in the Quran.

4d. Quran calls the Bible ‘al-Ththikra’
The Christians quote Chapter 15 verse 9 and say that God says that He has sent the Message and will guard it. The Arabic word used for Message is ‘ththikra’. This verse refers to the Quran but the Christian missionaries say that in the Quran the Bible is also referred to as ‘ththikra’ and hence the Quran in a wider context means that the Bible can also not get corrupted.

The verses quoted by Christians in the Quran that refer to the previous messages as ‘ththikra’ are as follows:

Chapter 16 Verse 43
Chapter 21 Verse 7
Chapter 21 Verse 105
Chapter 40 Verses 53 – 54

In all these verses, we find that the previous messages are referred to as ‘ththikra’. So does the Quran include these messages in Chapter 15 Verse 9?

Not at all! In all of these verses the message is referred to in the past tense. In none of these verses does it state that the People of the Book possess the message (‘ththikra’). Chapter 15 Verse 9 only refers to the present context and thus excludes the doings of men in the past.

Moreover in a much wider context, the Quran safeguards the true revelations of the Torah and the Injeel and thus Allah (swt) is saying that He will guard it from corruption. Thus by guarding the Quran, He is also guarding the true revelations of the Torah and the Injeel.

4e. Bring forth like Quran and Torah
Now the Christian missionaries quote two verses of the Quran and claim that the Quran presents the challenge to bring forth something like the Quran and Torah.

Chapter 28 Verses 48 – 49

But (now), when the Truth has come to them from Ourselves, they say, “Why are not (Signs) sent to him, like those which were sent to Moses?” Do they not then reject (the Signs) which were formerly sent to Moses? They say: “Two kinds of sorcery, each assisting the other!” And they say: “For us, we reject all (such things)!”

Say: “Then bring ye a Book from Allah, which is a better guide than either of them, that I may follow it! (do), if ye are truthful!”

As we have seen in all the previous verses, the Quran is confirming the truth in the Torah over and over again by repeating the truth which was still present in the Torah and correcting by default that which was corrupted. Hence people said that both these books are assisting each other as whatever truth the Quran confirmed, was found to be true in the Torah. Thus people labeled these two as ‘sorcery’ and thus rejected it. Then in the next verse Allah (swt) tells them to bring a book from Allah (swt) which is a better guide than either of the two i.e. Quran and Torah. Note that the verse uses the phrase ‘better guide’ thus it does not mean that the entire Torah was uncorrupted. Guidance in the Torah is seen to be much better than what is found even in the New Testament. While the laws in the Torah are similar to those found in the Quran, the corruption by the scribes, have introduced completely new laws in the New Testament. Thus in general no doubt the guidance in the Torah is better and thus the Quran tells them to bring a book from Allah that is a better guide than the Quran and Torah. Further, because the Quran kept on confirming the truth in the Torah, the people knew of what was part of the original scripture and thus as a better guide either of the two books could be placed as a challenge. The challenge is yet not to produce a book which is a better guide than these two but to bring from Allah a book which is a better guide than these two. This statement is different from the challenge of the Quran to produce a book like, or a Surah like the Quran. That challenge is for men to sit and produce like a book like Quran. Over here the challenge is to bring a book from Allah that is a better guide.

5. Conclusion
We went through all the verses that the Christians give to present their case that the Quran testifies that the entire Bible is the uncorrupted word of God. After going through these verses, the deception which the Christendom tries to create was exposed. It was seen that the Quran does not in any way testify that the Bible is completely uncorrupted. The Quran acts like a guardian over the Bible (5:48) and preserves the true revelations sent to Moses (as) and Jesus (as). It confirms the truth in the Bible thus by default exposing the falsehood in them. This paper was only to refute the verses they quote. In another article I will give evidence from the Quran to prove that the Bible indeed was corrupted.

Sahabah and their Merits

Veröffentlicht: 12. Dezember 2012 in english, Sahaba


Quran states: If you will not aid him, Allah certainly aided him when those who disbelieved expelled him, he being the second of the two, when they were both in the cave, when he said to his companion: Grieve not, surely Allah is with us. So Allah sent down His tranquility upon him and strengthened him with hosts which you did not see, and made lowest the word of those who disbelieved; and the word of Allah, that is the highest; and Allah is Mighty, Wise.(9:40)

Hadith States: Anas narrated that Abu Bakr As-Saddiq “Allah be pleased with them” told him: I saw the feet of the unbelievers over our heads while we were in the cave. I said: “O Allah’s Prophet! If any of them look down, he will see us beneath the feet.” The Prophet “Allah’s blessing and peace be upon him” said: “O Abu Bakr! What do you think of the two persons, of whome Allah is the Third?”

Sahih Muslim: Volume 4 Page No. 226 Hadith No 2381 [Dar al-Kutab al Ilmiyyah Translated by Muhammad Mahdi Al Sarif] – Refer to Hadith No. 5868 in online version.

The Vast Majority of Muslims i.e. Ahlus Sunnah wal Jammah unanimously agree that this ayah has unquestionable and undeniable merit of Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA)

Abu Bakr (RA) shall be called in from all gates of Paradise

Narrated Abu Huraira:

I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, „Anybody who spends a pair of something in Allah’s Cause will be called from all the gates of Paradise, „O Allah’s slave! This is good.‘ He who is amongst those who pray will be called from the gate of the prayer (in Paradise) and he who is from the people of Jihad will be called from the gate of Jihad, and he who is from those‘ who give in charity (i.e. Zakat) will be called from the gate of charity, and he who is amongst those who observe fast will be called from the gate of fasting, the gate of Raiyan.“ Abu Bakr said, „He who is called from all those gates will need nothing,“ He added, „Will anyone be called from all those gates, O Allah’s Apostle?“ He said, „Yes, and I hope you will be among those, O Abu Bakr


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 18:Sahih Bukhari

Merit of Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA) in words of Hadrat Ali (Karam Allahu Wajahu) himself

Narrated Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiya:

I asked my father (‚Ali bin Abi Talib), „Who are the best people after Allah’s Apostle ?“ He said, „Abu Bakr.“ I asked, „Who then?“ He said, „Then ‚Umar. “ I was afraid he would say „Uthman, so I said, „Then you? He said, „I am only an ordinary person.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 20: (Sahih Bukhari)

The first amongst men to enter paradise

Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: Gabriel came and taking me by the hand showed the gate of Paradise by which my people will enter. AbuBakr then said: Apostle of Allah! I wish I had been with you so that I might have looked at it. The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) then said: You, AbuBakr, will be the first of my people to enter Paradise


Book 40, Number 4635: (Sunnan Abu Dawud)

Finding Abu Bakr(R.A), when Prophet(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is not present

Narrated Jubair bin Mutim: A woman came to the Prophet who ordered her to return to him again. She said, „What if I came and did not find you?“ as if she wanted to say, „If I found you dead?“ The Prophet said, „If you should not find me, go to Abu Bakr.“


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 11: (Sahih Bukhari)

Generosity of Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA)

Abu Sa’id reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sat on the pulpit and said: Allah gave a choice to His servant that he may opt the beauties of the world or that which is with Him and the servant chose that which was with Him. Thereupon Abu Bakr wept and he wept bitterly and said: Let our fathers and our mothers be taken as ransom for you. It was Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) who had been given the choice and Abu Bakr knew it better than us, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) is reported to have said: Behold, of all people the most generous toward me in regard to his companionship and his property was Abu Bakr and were I to choose anyone as my bosom friend, I would have chosen Abu Bakr as my dear friend, but (for him) I cherish Islamic brotherliness and love. There shall be left open no window in the mosque except Abu Bakr’s window.


Book 031, Number 5869: Sahih Muslim

Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA) as Bosom friend

Abdullah reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: If I were to choose as my bosom friend I would have chosen the son of Abu Quhafa (Abu Bakr) as my bosom friend.


Book 031, Number 5873: Sahih Muslim

Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA) as a Successor

Ibn Abu Mulaika reported: I heard A’isha as saying and she was asked as to whom Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) would have nominated his successor if he had to nominate one at all. She said: Abu Bakr. It was said to her: Then whom after Abu Bakr? She said: Umar. It was said to her. Then whom after ‚Umar? She said: Abu Ubaida b. Jarrab, and then she kept quiet at this.


Book 031, Number 5877: Sahih Muslim

Most beloved Person of Prophet(Peace be Upon Him)

Narrated ‚Amr bin Al-As:The Prophet deputed me to read the Army of Dhat-as-Salasil. I came to him and said, „Who is the most beloved person to you?“ He said, “ ‚Aisha.“ I asked, „Among the men?“ He said, „Her father.“ I said, „Who then?“ He said, „Then ‚Umar bin Al-Khattab.“ He then named other men.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 14: Sahih Bukhari

Best Man among the Companions(R.A)

Narrated Ibn ‚Umar(r.a):

We used to compare the people as to who was better during the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle .We used to regard Abu Bakr(r.a) as the best, then ‚Umar(r.a), and then ‚Uthman(r.a) .


Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 57, Number 7

Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA) and The Fear of Allah

The Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) himself conveyed to him the glad tidings of his being the head of a group of persons in Paradise. The Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) once remarked:

„Abu Bakr’s name shall be called out from all the gates of Paradise, and he will be the first of my followers to enter it.“

With all these virtues and privileges, Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho) used to say:

„I wish I were a tree that would be cut and done away with.“

Sometimes he would say:

„I wish I were a blade of grass, whose life ended with the grazing by some beast.“

He also said: „I wish I were a hair on the body of a Mo’min.“

Once he went to a garden, where he saw a bird singing. He sighed deeply and said:

„0, bird! How lucky you are! You eat, you drink and fly under the shade of the trees, and you fear no reckoning of the Day of Judgement. I wish I were just like you.“

His Humbleness

Hadhrat Rabiah Aslami (Radhiyallaho anho) narrates:

„Once I had some argument with Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho), during which he uttered a word that I did not like. He realized it immediately and said to me ‚Brother, please say that word back to me in retaliation.‘ I refused to do so. He persisted, and even spoke of referring the matter to the Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam), but I did not agree to utter that word. He got up and left me. A few people of my clan remarked, ‚Look! How strange! The person does wrong to you and, on the top of that, he threatens to complain to the Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)‘.

I said, ‚Do you know who he is. He is Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho). To displease him is to displease the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) and to displease the Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) is to displease Allah, and if Allah is displeased then who can save Rabiah from ruin? I went to the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) and narrated the whole story to him. He said, ‚You were quite right in refusing to utter that word. But you could have said this much in reply: ‚0, Abu Bakr, (Radhiyallaho anho) May Allah forgive you!“


Praise of Sayyidna Umar (RA) in words of Hadrat Ali (Karam Allahu Wajahu)

bn Abu Mulaika reported: I heard Ibn ‚Abbas as saying: Wlien ‚Umar b. Khatab was placed in the coffin the people gathered around him. They praised him and supplicated for him before the bier was lifted up, and I was one amongst them. Nothing attracted my attention but a person who gripped my shoulder from behind. I saw towards him and found that he was ‚All. He invoked Allah’s mercy upon ‚Umar and said: You have left none behind you (whose) deeds (are so enviable) that I love to meet Allah with them. By Allah, I hoped that Allah would keep you and your two associates together. I had often heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: I came and there came too Abu Bakr and ‚Umar; I entered and there entered too Abu Bakr and ‚Umar; I went out and there went out too Abu Bakr and ‚Umar, and I hope and think that Allah will keep you along with them.


Book 031, Number 5885: Sahih Muslim

House in Paradise for Umar (RA) was already built

Jabir reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying:I entered Paradise and saw in it a house or a palace. I said: For whom is it resersred? They (the Angels) said: It is for ‚Umar b. Khattab. (The Holy Prophet said to ‚Umar b. Khattab): I intended to get into it but I thought of your feelings. Thereupon ‚Umar wept and said: Apostle of Allah, could I feel any jealousy in your case?


Book 031, Number 5896: (Sahih Muslim)

Umar (RA) the one deserving to get inspiration

A’isha reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There had been among the people before you inspired persons and if there were any such among my Umma Umar b. Khattab would be one of them. Ibn Wahb explained the word Muhaddathun as those who receive hint from the High (Mulhamun).


Book 031, Number 5901: (Sahih Muslim)

Allah aided Islam through Sayyidna Umar Ibn ul Khattab (Radhi Allah)

Sayyidna Ibn Umar (RA) reported that Allah’s Messenger (Salallaho alaihi wasalam) prayed. “O Allah, strengthen Islam with whichever of these two men is dearer to you. Abu Jahl or Umar ibn al-Khattab (Radhi Allah)”. And Umar (RA) was the one of the two dear to Allah


[Narrated in Tirimdhi Volume 2 Page No 638 Hadith No. 3701 – English Translation by Dar ul Ishaat Karachi, Pakistan] Imam Abu Isa Tirimdhi said : The Hadith is Hasan Sahih.

Whosoever defames these 2 Sahaba does not love Prophet (saw)

Muhammad ibn Sirin said: I do not suppose that a man who defames Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA) loves the Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam)


[Tirimdhi, Hadith No. 3705 , Dar ul Ishaat], Imam Abu Isa al Tirimdhi (rah) said: The Hadith is Hasan Gharib.

Prophet(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) Confirming the Strenght of Imaan

Abu Sa’id Khudri reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as say ing: While I was asleep I saw people being presented to me (in a dream) and they wore shirts and some of these reached up to the breasts and some even beyond them. Then there happened to pass ‚Umar b. Khattab and his shirt had been trailing. They said: Allah’s Messeneer, how do you interpret the dream? He said: (As strength of) faith.


Book 031, Number 5887 Sahih Muslim

Prophet(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) informing about the Knowledge of Sayyidna Umar Ibn ul Khattab (R.A)

Hamza b. Abdullah b. ‚Umar b. Khattab reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: While I was asleep I saw (in a dream) a cup containing milk bein. presented to me. I took out of that until I perceived freshness being reflected through my nails. Then I presented the leftover to ‚Umar b. Khattab. They said: Allah’s Messenger: how do you interpret it? He said: This implies knowledge.


Book 031, Number 5887 Sahih Muslim

Satan changes his way in front of Sayyidna Umar Ibn ul Khattab (R.A)

Sa’d b. Waqqas reported that Umar sought permission from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) to visit him when some women of the Quraish were busy in talking with him and raising their voices above his Voiee. When’Umar sought permission they stood up and went hurriedly behind the curtain. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave him permission smilingly. Thereupon ‚Umar said: Allah’s Messenger, may Allah keep you happy all your life. Then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I wonder at these women who were with me and no sooner did they hear your voice, they immediately went behind the curtain. Thereupon ‚Umar said: Allah’s Messenger, you have more right that they should fear you. Then Umar (addressing the women) said: O ye enemies of yourselves, do you fear me and fear not the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)? They said: Yes, you are harsh and strict as compared to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). Thereupon, Allah’s Messenger (maypeace be upon him) said: By Him in Whose Hand is my life, if satan would encounter you in the way he would certainly take a different way from that of yours.


Book 031, Number 5887 Sahih Muslim

“There cannot be any Prophet after our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Salallaho alaihi wasalam) as Authentic Hadith says “La Nabi Baadi” (There is no Prophet after me)” , however in explaining the greatness of Hadrat Umar (RA), Prophet (saw) said:”

Sayyidna Uqbah ibn Aamir (Radhi Allah) reported that Allah’s Messenger (salallaho alaihi wasalam) said: If there were to be a Prophet after me then he would be Umar ibn al-Khattab


►[Tirimdhi Hadith No. 3706, Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal Hadith No. 17410]-In Tirimdhi It is declared as Hassan

►Volume 5, Book 57, Number 38: (Sahih Bukhari)


Absolute happiness of Prophet(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) with Uthman(R.A)

Sayyidna Abdur Rahman ibn Khabbab (RA) narrated: I observed the Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) while he was encouraging (people) for the army ill-equipped (for the battle of Tabuk). Uthman ibn Affan (RA) stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah! On me are a hundred camels loaded with their cloths and saddles in the path of Allah.”. He continued to urge the people forward and Uthman (RA) got up and said. “O Messenger of Allah, I am bound to provide two hundred camels with their cloths and saddles in Allah’s path.” As the Prophet carried on his appeal, Uthman Ibn Affan (RA) got up and said, “O Messenger of Allah On me are three hundred camels with their cloth and saddles in Allah’s path.” I observed Allah’s Messenger (salallaho alaihi wasalam) get down from the pulpit, saying the while: (Say) Nothing against UTHMAN WHATEVER HE DOES AFTER THIS


[Sunnan al Tirimdhi Hadith No. 3720] – Imam Abu Isa Tirimdhi (rah) said: This Hadith is (Hasan) Gharib (i.e. rare but authentic)

Uthman(R.A) the holder of shirt which some people tried to snatch (i.e. Caliphate)

Sayyidah Aisha (RA) reported that the Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) said (to Uthman), “O Uthman perhaps Allah may clothe you with a shirt. So, if people try to take it away from you, do not remove it for them


[Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal Hadith No. 25216],Imam Abu Isa Tirimdhi (rah) also declared it Hassan in his Sunnan

Hatered for Uthman(R.A) is Anger for Allah

Sayyidna Jabir (ra) reported that funeral of a man was brought before the Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) that he may lead the funeral salah. But he did not pray over it. Someone said: O Messenger of Allah, we have never seen you neglect the salah over anyone before this. He said: he bore hatred for Uthman, so Allah is angry with him


[Sunnah Tirimdhi Hadith No. 3729]

Angels show modesty towards Uthman(R.A)

A’isha reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was lying in the bed in my apartment with his thigh or his shank uncovered that Abu Bakr sought permission to get in. It was given to him and he conversed in the same very state (the Prophet’s thigh or shank uncovered). Then ‚Umar sought permission for getting in and it was given to him and he conversed in that very state. Then ‚Uthman sought permission for getting in; Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sat down and he set right his clothes. Mubammad (one of the narrators) said: I do not say that it happened on the same day. He (‚Uthman) then entered and conversed and as he went out, A’isha said: Abu Bakr entered aind you did not stir and did not observe much care (in arranging your clothes), then ‚Umar entered and you did not stir and did not arrange your clothes, then ‚Uthman entered and you got up and set your clothes right, thereupon he said: Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty.


Book 031, Number 5906:Sahih Muslim

Glad tidings of Paradise

Narrated Abu Musa:

While I was with the Prophet in one of the gardens of Medina, a man came and asked me to open the gate. The Prophet said to me, „Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings that he will enter Paradise.“ I opened (the gate) for him, and behold! It was Abu Bakr. I informed him of the glad tidings the Prophet had said, and he praised Allah. Then another man came and asked me to open the gate. The Prophet said to me „Open (the gate) and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise.“ I opened (the gate) for him, and behold! It was ‚Umar. I informed him of what the Prophet had said, and he praised Allah. Then another man came and asked me to open the gate. The Prophet said to me. „Open (the gate) for him and inform him of the glad tidings, of entering Paradise with a calamity which will befall him. “ Behold ! It was ‚Uthman, I informed him of what Allah’s Apostle had said. He praised Allah and said, „I seek Allah’s Aid.“


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 42: Sahih Bukhari

Innocence of Hazarth Uthman(R.A)

Sayyidna Ibn Umar (ra) reported that Allah’s Messenger (salallaho alaihi wasalam) mentioned a fitnah (trial), He said,:This innocent one will be killed in that, reffering to Uthman bin Affan


[Sunnan Tirimdhi Hadith No 3728]

Uthman Gani(R.A) Modesty

A’isha, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (mav peace be upon him), and Uthman both reported that Abu Bakr sought permission from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) for entrance (in his apartment) as he had been lying on his bed covered with the bed-sheet of A’isha, and he gave permission to Abu Bakr in that very state and he, having his need fulfilled, went back. Then Umar sought permission and it was given to him in that very state and, after having his need fulfilled, he went back. And ‚Uthman reported: Then I sought permission from him and he got up and raid to A’isha: Wrap yourself well with your cloth, then I got my need fulfilled and came back. And A’isha said: Allah’s Messenger, why is it that I did not see you feeling any anxiety in case of dressing properly in the presence of Abu Bakr and ‚Umar (Allah be pleased with them) as you showed in case of ‚Uthman. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Verily Uthman is a person who is very modest and I was afraid that if I permitted him to enter in this very state he would not inform me of his need.


Sahih Muslim Book 031, Number 5907

Prophet(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) taking Pledge on behalf of Uthman(R.A)

Narrated ‚Uthman:

(the son of Muhib) An Egyptian who came and performed the Hajj to the Kaba saw some people sitting. He enquire, „Who are these people?“ Somebody said, „They are the tribe of Quraish.“ He said, „Who is the old man sitting amongst them?“ The people replied, „He is ‚Abdullah bin ‚Umar.“ He said, „O Ibn Umar! I want to ask you about something; please tell me about it. Do you know that ‚Uthman fled away on the day (of the battle) of Uhud?“ Ibn ‚Umar said, „Yes.“ The (Egyptian) man said, „Do you know that ‚Uthman was absent on the day (of the battle) of Badr and did not join it?“ Ibn ‚Umar said, „Yes.“ The man said, „Do you know that he failed to attend the Ar Ridwan pledge and did not witness it (i.e. Hudaibiya pledge of allegiance)?“ Ibn ‚Umar said, „Yes.“ The man said, „Allahu Akbar!“ Ibn ‚Umar said, „Let me explain to you (all these three things). As for his flight on the day of Uhud, I testify that Allah has excused him and forgiven him; and as for his absence from the battle of Badr, it was due to the fact that the daughter of Allah’s Apostle was his wife and she was sick then. Allah’s Apostle said to him, „You will receive the same reward and share (of the booty) as anyone of those who participated in the battle of Badr (if you stay with her).‘ As for his absence from the Ar-Ridwan pledge of allegiance, had there been any person in Mecca more respectable than ‚Uthman (to be sent as a representative). Allah’s Apostle would have sent him instead of him. No doubt, Allah’s Apostle had sent him, and the incident of the Ar-Ridwan pledge of Allegiance happened after ‚Uthman had gone to Mecca. Allah’s Apostle held out his right hand saying, ‚This is ‚Uthman’s hand.‘ He stroke his (other) hand with it saying, ‚This (pledge of allegiance) is on the behalf of ‚Uthman.‘ Then Ibn ‚Umar said to the man, ‚Bear (these) excuses in mind with you.‘


Sahih Bukhari Volume 5, Book 57, Number 48


The Prophet(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) gave the Flag to Ali bin Abi Talib (RA) whom Allah and his Apostle love

Narrated Salama: Ali happened to stay behind the Prophet and (did not join him) during the battle of Khaibar for he was having eye trouble. Then he said, „How could I remain behind Allah’s Apostle?“ So ‚Ali set out following the Prophet , When it was the eve of the day in the morning of which Allah helped (the Muslims) to conquer it, Allah’s Apostle said, „I will give the flag (to a man), or tomorrow a man whom Allah and His Apostle love will take the flag,“ or said, „A man who loves Allah and His Apostle; and Allah will grant victory under his leadership.“ Suddenly came ‚Ali whom we did not expect. The people said, „This is ‚Ali.“ Allah’s Apostle gave him the flag and Allah granted victory under his leadership.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 52: (Sahih Bukhari)

The Analogy between Aaron and Moses (Peace be upon them both)

Sa’d reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying to ‚Ali: Aren’t you satisfied with being unto me what Aaron was unto Moses?

Reference: Book 031, Number 5916: (Sahih Muslim)

Believers love Hadrat Ali and hypocrites nurse grudge against him

Zirr reported: ‚Ali observed: By Him Who split up the seed and created something living, the Apostle (may peace and blessings be upon him) gave me a promise that No one but a believer would love me, and none but a hypocrite would nurse grudge against me.

Reference: Book 001, Number 0141: (Sahih Muslim)

Umar(R.A) against whom who degrades Ali(R.A)

Narrated Sad bin ‚Ubaida:

A man came to Ibn ‚Umar and asked about ‚Uthman and Ibn ‚Umar mentioned his good deeds and said to the questioner. „Perhaps these facts annoy you?“ The other said, „Yes.“ Ibn ‚Umar said, „May Allah stick your nose in the dust (i.e. degrade you)!‘ Then the man asked him about ‚Ali. Ibn ‚Umar mentioned his good deeds and said, „It is all true, and that is his house in the midst of the houses of the Prophet. Perhaps these facts have hurt you?“ The questioner said, „Yes.“ Ibn ‚Umar said, „May Allah stick your nose in the dust (i.e. degrade you or make you do things which you hate) ! Go away and do whatever you can against me.“


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 54:(Sahih Bukhari)

For whosoever is Prophet (saw) Mawla, Ali is Mawla

Hadith #1

Sayyidna Abu Sarihah (Radhi Allah) or Zayd ibn Arqam (Shu’bah is uncertain about it) said that Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) said: He for whom I am Mawla (friend, beloved, helper), Ali is Mawla


[Sunnan al Tirimdhi Hadith No. 3733] – Imam Abu Isa Tirimdhi (rah) said: This Hadith is „HASAN SAHIH“

Hadith #2

Sayyidna Hubshi ibn Junadah (RA) reported that Allah’s Messenger said: Ali is from me and I am from Ali


[Sunnan Ibn Majah Hadith No. 119] – Imam Tirimdhi also narrated it and declared it Hassan Sahih.

Hadith #3

عن البراء بن عازب رضي الله عنه، قال: أقبلنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في حجته التي حج، فنزل في بعض الطريق، فأمر الصلاة جامعة، فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: ألست أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: ألست أولى بكل مؤمن من نفسه؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فهذا ولي من أنا مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، اللهم! عاد من عاداه

Translation: “Barā’ bin ‘Āzib (RA) narrates: We performed hajj with Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). On the way he stayed at a place and commanded us (to establish) the prayer in congregation. After this, he held ‘Alī’s hand, and said: Am I not nearer than the lives of the believers? They replied: Why not! He said: Am I not nearer than the life of every believer? They replied: Why not! He said: One who has me as his master has this (‘Alī) as his guardian. O Allāh! Befriend the one who befriends him and be the enemy of one who is his enemy.”


► Ibn Mājah narrated this sound hadīth (tradition) in preface (al-muqaddimah) to his Sunan (1:88 # 116)

►Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:168)

►Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:167, 168)

►Ibn ‘Abī ‘Āsim briefly mentioned in as-Sunnah (p.603 # 1362).

Hadith #4

Most of the hadīth-scholars have described the tradition given below in the mode of revelation of the verse:

إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللهُ وَرَسُوْلُه وَالَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوا الَّذِيْنَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلاةَ وَيُؤْتُوْنَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُوْنَ

[Quran, al-Mā’idah 5:55]

(Surely your (helping) friend is Allāh and His Messenger and (along with them) are the believers who establish prayers, pay zakāh and bow down (in humility before Allāh (SWT))

عن عمار بن ياسر رضي الله عنه، يقول: وقف على علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه سائل وهو راكع في تطوع، فنزع خاتمه فأعطاه السائل، فأتى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، فأعلمه ذالك، فنزلت على النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم هذه الآية: {إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللهُ وَرَسُوْله وَالَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوا الَّذِيْنَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلاةَ وَيُؤْتُوْنَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُوْنَ} فقرأها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، ثم قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه

“It is narrated by ‘Ammār bin Yāsir (RA) that a beggar came up to ‘Alī (RA) and stood beside him. He was kneeling in prayer. He (the beggar) pulled out his ring and he gave the ring to the beggar. Then ‘Alī (RA) called on the Prophet (SAW) and told him the news.At this occasion, this verse was revealed to him: (Surely your (helping) friend is Allāh and His Messenger and (along with them) are the believers who establish prayers, pay zakāh and bow down (in humility before Allāh (SWT)). Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) read out the verse and said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Be his friend who befriends him (‘Alī) and be his enemy who is his enemy.”


►Tabarānī related it in al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (7:129, 130 # 6228), al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (4:174 # 4053; 5:195, 203, 204 # 5068, 5069, 5092, 5097), and in al-Mu‘jam-us-saghīr (1:65)

►Ahmad bin Hambal narrated it in al-Musnad (1:119; 4:372)

►Hākim, al-Mustadrak (3:119, 371 # 4576, 5594)

Hadith #5

عن البراء بن عازب رضي الله عنه، قال: كنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في سفر، فنزلنا بغدير خم، فنودي فينا: الصلاة جامعة، وكسح لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم تحت شجرتين، فصلى الظهر وأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: ألستم تعلمون أنى أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: ألستم تعلمون أنى أولى بكل مؤمن من نفسه؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه. قال: فلقيه عمر رضي الله عنه بعد ذلك، فقال له: هنيئا يا ابن أبي طالب! أصبحت وأمسيت مولى كل مؤمن ومؤمنة

Translation:“It is narrated by Barā’ bin ‘Āzib (RA): We were on a journey with Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). (On the way) we stayed at Ghadīr Khum. There it was announced that the prayer was about to be offered. The space under two trees was cleaned for Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). Then he offered the zuhr (noon) prayer, and, holding ‘Alī’s hand, he said: Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the lives of the believers? They said: Why not! He said: Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the life of every believer? They said: Why not! The narrator says that he said while holding ‘Alī’s hand: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Befriend the one who befriends him (‘Alī) and be the enemy of one who is his enemy. The narrator says that after this ‘Umar (bin al-Khattāb (RA)) met ‘Alī (RA) and said to him: O Ibn Abī Tālib! Congratulations, you have become the master of every male and female believer, morning and evening (for ever).”


►Ahmad bin Hambal related it from Barā’ bin ‘Āzib through two different chains of transmission in al-Musnad (4:281)

►Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:78 # 12167)

►Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:169; 5:464)

►Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (5:167, 168)

► Ibn Athīr, Asad-ul-ghābah (4:103)

► Dhahabī has said in Siyar a‘lām-in-nubalā’ (2:623, 624)

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Ahlul Bayt Teil 2

Veröffentlicht: 12. Dezember 2012 in Uncategorized

•Über ich habe Quellen aus sunnitischen Werken, dass Adam (a.) um Vergebung bat, indem Er (a.) Muhammad (s.), Fatima (a.), Ali (a.), al-Hassan (a.) und al-Hussein (a.) erwähnte.
Hier die Quellen mit der Kopie von der entsprechenden Seite des Buches:
Tafsir Durr al-Manthur von Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, Volume 1, Seite 60-61
Manaqib Amir al-Mu’mineen, Seite 59
Sayyadtun Nisa il Jana, Seite 87

Ibn Abbas (ra) überliefert: ,,Wir haben bezeugt, dass der Gesandte Gottes (s.) für neun Monate zur Haustür Imam Alis (as) kommend ausrief: ,,As Salamu Aleikum wa Rahmatullah, Ahlulbayt”! Sicher will Allah (swt) jedes Übel von Euch nehmen, Ahlulbayt und euch gründlich reinigen”! Dies machte der Prophet (s.) sieben mal am Tag. * al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Hafidh al-Suyuti, v5, p198
Abu Hurayrah berichtet die zwei gewichtigsten Ahadith über Al-Hussayn, nämlich das der Gesandte Allahs sagte:“Hussayn ist von mir und ich bin von Hussayn“ [Hadith Hassan bei Tirmidhi, Kapitel: Vorzüglichkeiten von Al-Hassan und Al-Hussayn. Hadith Nr. 3708] und der Prophet, Friede sei auf ihm, sagte:“Al-Hassan und Al-Hussayn sind die Meister der Jugendlichen im Paradies“[Authentisch überliefert bei Tirmidhi, Ahmad und weiteren]

Der Prophet (ص) sagte:
• „Derjenige der in Liebe zur Ahl-ul-Bayt stirbt, ist ein Martyrer!“
• „Sprich; der in Liebe zur Ahl-ul-Bayt stirbt, dem wird vergeben!“
• „Derjenige, der in Liebe zur Ahl-ul-Bayt stirbt, starb als ein Gläubiger mit einem vollkommenen Glauben.“
• „Es gibt keinen Zweifel! Derjenige, der in Liebe zur Ahl-ul-Bayt stirbt, dem werden die Engel des Todes die frohe Botschaft des Paradieses überbringen und ebenso die beiden Engel der Befragung.“ (Munkar und Nakeer)
• „Derjenige, der in Liebe zur Ah-ul-Bayt stirbt, dem wird Allah sein Grab zu einem heiligen Grab machen, welches die Engel der Barmherzigkeit besuchen werden.“
• „Und wahrlich, derjenige, der in Liebe zur Ahl-ul-Bayt stirbt, wird zum Paradies geführt, wie die Braut zu dem Haus ihres Mannes geführt wird“
• „Und kein Zweifel! Der, der mit dem Hass über die Prophetenfamilie stirbt, wird am Tage des Gerichts auf der Stirn geschrieben bekommen, dass er von der Barmherzigkeit Allahs ausgeschlossen wird.“
• „Sieh! Der mit Hass über die Ahl-ul-Bayt stirbt, der ist ein Ungläubiger!“
• „Und, der mit Hass über die Ahl-ul-Bayt stirbt, der wird niemals den Duft des Paradises riechen.“
Sunnitische Referenzen: Tafsir al Kabir Fakhr al Din Mohammad Ibn Umar al Razi, Ägypten 1938, Auslegung des Verses 42;23, Kapitel 27, Seite 165-166

Fakhr al Razi und andere, geben diese Überlieferungen zur Untermauerung des folgenden Quranverses an:„Sprich; Ich verlange von euch keinen Lohn dafür, es sei denn die Liebe zu den Verwandten.“ (Sura 42:23)

Es wurde von den sunnitischen Quraninterpretoren verbreitet, dass Ibn Abbas berichtete: Als der o.g. Vers herab kam, fragten die Anhänger ihn:„Oh Prophet Allahs, wer sind die Verwandten, dessen Liebe Allah vorschreibt? Der Prophet sagte: „Ali, Fatima und ihre beiden Söhne.“ Er wiederholten diesen Satz dreimal.
Sunnitische Referenzen:
• Tafsir al Kabir, von Fakhr al Din al Razi, Kapitel 27, Seite 165-166
• Tafsir al Thalabi, Deutung des Verses 42;23
• Tafsir al Tabari, von Ibn Jarir al Tabari,
• Tafsir al Qurtubi, Deutung des Verses 42;23
• Tafsir al Kashshaf, von al Zamakhshari, Deutung des Verses 42;23
• Tafsir al Baidhawi, Deutung des Verses 42;23
• Tafsir al Kalbi, Deutung des Verses 42.23
• al Madarik
• Dhakha ir al Uqba, von Muhibbuddin al Tabari, Seite 25
• Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal
• al Sawaiq al Muhrqah, von Ibn Hajar Haythami, Kapitel 11, Seite 259
• Shawahid al Tanzeel, Hakim Hasakani , al Hanifi , Volume 2, Seite 132 und viele andere wie z.B. Ibn Abi Hatam, Al Tabarani usw.

Shaddad Ibn Abdullah überliefert: ,,Ich hörte von Wathilla ibn Aqsa’, dass als der Kopf (Imam) al Hussains gebracht wurde, missbrauchte einer der Syrier Ihn (Hussain) und seinen Vater (Ali), Wathilla stand daraufhin auf und sagte: ,,Ich schwöre bei Allah, dass seitdem ich den heiligen Propheten (s.) sagen hörte: ,,Oh ihr Leute vom Hause des Propheten! Allah will euch nur rein vor jeder Schmutzigkeit und Makel halten und euch gründlich reinigen”!, habe ich Ali, Fatima, al Hassan und al Hussain immer geliebt”.* Usdul Ghabah, Ibn al-Athir, v2, p20

Al Tirmidhi überlieferte: Der Gesandte Allahs sagte:„Derjenige, der mich liebt und al Hassan und al Hussein;und wer ihren Vater und ihre Mutter liebt; der wird mit mir im Paradies sein.“Sunnitische Referenzen:
• Sahih alTirmidhi v. 5, page 641
• Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal
• Fadha il al Sahaba , von Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Band 2, Seite 693, Überlieferung 1185
Die Überlieferungen der Ahl Al-Bayt (ra) in den Hadithsammlungen der Sunnah (Kuttub tis’ah die bekannten neun authentischsten Werke):Überlieferungen von Imam Ali Ibnu Al-Hussayn Zayn Al-Abidin Al-Sajjad (ra), dem Grossgelehrten der Salaf, dem Mitglied der Ahl Al-Bayt.
• Sahih Al-Bukhari: 25 Überlieferungen via Zayn Al-Abdidin und 25 Überlieferungen via des dritten Kalifen der Muslime, Othman Ibn Affan (ra)
• Sahih Muslim: 15 Überlieferungen via Zayn Al-Abidin und nur 9 via Abu Bakr.
• Abu Dawud: 11 via Zayn Al-Abidin, 11 via Abu Bakr.

Die Buecher der Sunnah sind voll mit den Imamen der Ahl Al-Bayt (ra)Überlieferungen von Imam Muhammad Abi Jafar Al-Baqir (ra):Der grosse Imam der Sunnah, der Grossgelehrte der Ahl Al-Bayt und ein frommer unter den Salaf (Altvorderen), der grosse Imam, der einzigartige, den die Rafidah sich als ihren fünften „unfehlbaren“ Imam zuschreiben, wo doch dieser frei ist von ihnen und ihren Lügen. Dieser hat in den 9 stärksten Büchern der Sunnah 240 Ahadith überliefert.Nun werden wir die Anzahl der Überlieferten Ahadith Al-Baqirs, mit nichts geringerem als die Überlieferungen von Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq vergleichen:
• Al-Baqirs Überlieferungen im Sahih von Muslim = 19Abu Bakrs Überlieferungen im Sahih von Muslim = 9
• Al-Baqirs Überlieferungen im Sunan von Al-Nisai = 56Abu Bakrs Überlieferungen im Sunan von Al-Nisai = 22
• Al-Baqirs Überlieferungen im Sunan von Abi Dawud = 7
• Abu Bakrs Überlieferungen im Sunan von Abi Dawud = 11
• Al-Baqirs Überlieferungen im Sunan von Al-Tirmidhi = 23
• Abu Bakrs Überlieferungen im Sunan von Al-Tirmidhi = 22
• Al-Baqirs Überlieferungen im Sunan von Ibni Majah = 24
• Abu Bakrs Überlieferungen im Sunan von Ibni Majah = 16
• noch deutlicher wird es, wenn man alle überlieferten Ahadith von Abu Bakr in den Kutub Sittah, mit denen von Al-Baqir vergleicht:
• Al-Baqir = 229
• Abu Bakr = 210

Imam Ibn `Asakir überliefert in seinem Tabyin, von Imam ibn Shahin, welcher sagte: “Zwei rechtschaffene Männer, sind durch üble Leute geplagt worden:“Ja`far Ibn Muhammad (Al-Sadiq) und Ahmad ibn Hanbal.“
Ibn Al-Salah sagte: “Zwei Imame, sind wegen ihren Anhängern (BEHAUPTERN) geplagt worden, obwohl sie frei von ihnen sind sind: Ahmad ibn Hanbal wurde geprüft mit den Antropomorphisten (Al-Mujassimah) und Ja`far Al-Sadiq mit den (Shia) Al-Rafidah.[zitiert bei Shaykh Tajud-Din Al-Subki in seiner „Qa’idah“ und in seinem „Tabaqat Al-Shafi`iyyah Al-Kubra“.]

Überliefert von Dschabir ibn Samura: Ich hörte den Propheten (s.) sagen: „Es wird zwölf Anführer geben.“ Danach sagte er einen Satz den ich nicht gehört habe. Mein Vater sagte der Prophet (s.) fügte hinzu “ Alle von ihnen werden von den Quraisch abstammen.“ (Im Sahih von Buchari, Kitabul Ahkam)

Der Prophet (s.) sagte: “ Die Religion (Islam) wird fortfahren bis zur Stunde (Tag der Auferstehung), mit zwölf Kalifen für Euch, alle von ihnen werden von den Quraisch abstammen.“ (Sahih von Muslim, Kitab al-Imaara)

Dschabir ibn Samura (r.) berichtete: Mein Vater und ich traten bei dem Propheten (s.) und ich hörte ihn sagen: Diese Sache (das Kalifat) wird nicht zu Ende gehen, bis es unter den Kalifen zwölf gibt. Der Prophet sprach weiter aber ich konnte ihn nicht hören. Ich fragte meinen Vater nach dem, was der Prophet gesagt hatte. Er erwiderte: Sie alle werden von Quraisch.„Ich (ibn Hajār) sage“ wie das bei anderen Stellen in seinen Matālib al-‚Aliyya der Fall gewesen ist und wie wir das auch in seinen anderen Werken lesen wie zb. Al-Isābah. Was aber ibn Hajār bezüglich den Ahadithen über die 12 Khulafā bei unseren Sahihayn wirklich sagte lautet: „Keiner hat viel Wissen über diesen besonderen Hadith.“ [Fath al-Bāri 16:338]

Dr. Jassim M. Hussain, ein frommer 12er Imamī der angesehen wird bei deiner Sekte sagt in seinem Buch „The Occultation of The Twelfh Imam“ auf der Seite 143: „Die Mehrheit des Imamiten …bestritten seine Geburt oder verspotteten sogar seine Existenz, wie auch diejenigen, die an ihn Glaubten. Gemäß al-Nu’mani gab der Hauptteil dieser Gruppen ihren Glauben an den verborgenen Imam auf. Tatsächlich waren diejenigen, die fortsetzten eine Überzeugung in seinem Imamat zu halten, eine kleine Minderheit, die den Kreisen von Erzählern, wie Ibn Qubba und al-Nu’mani selbst gehört haben, der selbst seinen Glauben auf die Traditionen der Imame stützte (D.h auf die Hadithen der zwölf Imame). Viele Gelehrte teilten die Komplikation der Imamitische Massen über den anhaltenden Verschwinden des zwölften Imams.“

Abu Zarr überliefert von dem Propheten Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam, dass er sagte: ,,Wahrlich, meine Ahl-ul-Bayt ist für euch wie die Arche Noah; wer sie besteigt, wird errettet, und wer sie verpasst, geht unter!“Die Quelle dieses Hadises sind auch diese: Al-Mustadrak von al-Hakim 3/151, al-Talkhis von al-Zahabi, Yanabi‘ al-Mawadda, S. 30 u. 370, al-Sawa‘iq al-Muhriqa von Ibn Hajar S. 184 u. 234, Tarikh al-Khulafa und al-Jami‘ asl-Saghir von al-Suyuti; Is‘af al-Raghibin
Ibn Taymiyyah sagte “Sie (Die Ahle Sunna) lieben die Menschen im Haushalt des Gesandten Allahs, sie betrachten sie mit Liebe und Treue, und sie beherzigen den Befehl des Gesandten Allahs über sie … aber sie verwerfen den Weg der (schiitischen) Rafidha , die die Sahaba hassen und diese verleumden, und sie lehnen ebenfalls den Weg der Nasibis ab, die die Ahl-e-Bayt (as) in Wort und Tat stets beleidigen.”(Majmoo al-Fatawa, 3 / 154)“

Ibn Taimiyah, der bekannt für seinen Groll gegen Ali ibn Abi Talib (as) ist, behauptet stolz, dass keiner der sunnitischen Juristen Belehrungen von Imam Ali (as) erlangte:Keiner der vier Imame, noch die anderen Juristen, beziehen sich auf ihn (Ali) in ihrer Rechtsprechung. Wahrlich, wenn Malik’s Wissen aus dem Volk von Madina gewonnen wurde, haben die Leute von Madina nicht Alis Äußerungen angenommen. Sie nahmen ihre Rechtsprechung von den sieben Juristen, Zaid, Umar, Ibn Umar und so weiter. Shafiyee erhielt Rechtsprechung von den Menschen aus Mekka, den Gefährten von Ibn Juraij wie Saeed bin Salem al-Qadah und Muslim bin khalid al-Zenji. Ibn Juraij erlangte Wissen durch die Gefährten von Ibn Abbas, wie Atta und andere. Wahrlich Ibn Abbas war ein unabhängiger Mujtahid. Jedes mal wenn er eine Fatwa gab, gemäß der Gefährten, würde er die Fatwa von Abu Bakr und Umar geben, nichts Ali’s. Er widersprach sich mit Ali in wenigen Dingen.Minhaj al-Sunnah, Band 7 von den Seiten 529 – 530Die ganze Religion dreht sich darum die Wahrheit zu wissen und dementsprechend zu handeln. Und das Handeln danach muss mit der Geduld begleitet werden.“Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmoo-ul-Fataawaa

Who are the Ahl as Sunnah wa´l Jama´ah ?

Veröffentlicht: 7. Dezember 2012 in Uncategorized

Who are the Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah?

Many people today like to classify themselves as belonging to the Saved Sect (Firqatun-Najiyyah) – Ahl as-Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ah; but do these people really know which is the Saved Sect, from the many sects we have today? The following is an attempt to clarify some misconceptions by way of definitive proofs from the Qur’an and Sunnah, as well as quotes from the profoundly learned Classical Scholars of Islam. Know that there is only one Saved Sect in Islam, and this is the original pristine form of Islam that has been transmitted to us by Allah Subhana Wa Ta’ala in his Qur’an, his Rasul (Peace and blessings be upon him), the blessed Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all) and the great scholars of Islam (Allah’s mercy be upon them all) who have been following their Straight Path for more than one thousand years of Islam’s history.

The first question that should be raised is: „What differentiates one sect from another sect?“ The answer to this is simple and definitive! Know that the chief characteristic that distinguishes one sect from another, lies not in the differences of opinion that its scholars have attained by making ijtihad from the sources of the Shari’ah (this leads to the formation of the Madhhabs), but rather the actual belief (aqid’ah or i’tiqad in Arabic) that the scholars and laity of the sect in question are clinging onto – since the founding of their respective sect.

According to the unknown author of the book Belief and Islam (pp. 78-9), the faith of the People of the Sunnah and Jama’ah was spread as follows:

„Nowadays, some mouths frequently use the name of ‚Salafiyya‘. Every Muslim should know very well that in Islam there is nothing in the name of the Madhhab of Salafiyya but there is the Madhhab of the Salaf as-salihin who were the Muslims of the first two Islamic centuries (i.e; the Companions, their successors and the followers of the successors) which were lauded in a Hadith sharif.

The ulama of Islam who came in the third and fourth centuries are called Khalaf as-sadiqin. The i’tiqad (belief) of these honourable people is called the Madhhab of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah. This is the Madhhab of Iman, tenets of faith. The Iman held by the Sahaba al-Kiram (may Allah be pleased with them all) and by the Tabi’un (Allah’s mercy be upon them all) was the same. There was no difference between their beliefs. Today most Muslims in the world are in the Madhhab of Ahl as-Sunnah (i.e; most Muslim’s claim to be Sunni’s). All the seventy-two heretical groups (see later for the actual Hadith and its commentary) of bid’ah appeared (mainly) after the second century of Islam. Founders of some of them lived earlier, but it was after the Tabi’un that their books were written, and that they appeared in groups and defied the Ahl as-Sunnah.

Rasulullah (Peace and blessings be upon him) brought the beliefs of Ahl as-Sunnah. The Sahaba al-kiram (may Allah be pleased with them all) derived these teachings of Iman from the source (the Qur’an and Sunnah). And the Tabi’un (successors), in their turn, learned these teachings from the Sahaba al-kiram. And from them their successors learned, thus the teachings of Ahl as-Sunnah reached us by way of transmission and tawatur (through many undeniable chains of transmission). These teachings cannot be explored by way of reasoning. Intellect cannot change them and will only help understand them. That is, intellect is necessary for understanding them, for realizing that they are right and for knowing their value. All the scholars of Hadith held the beliefs of the Ahl as-Sunnah. The Imams of the four Madhhabs in deeds, too, were in this Madhhab. Also, al-Maturidi and al-Ashari (Allah’s mercy be upon them), the two Imam’s of our Madhhab in beliefs, were in the Madhhab of the Ahl as-Sunnah. Both of these Imams promulgated this Madhhab. They always defended this Madhhab against heretics and materialists, who had been stuck in the bogs of ancient Greek philosophy. Though they were contemporaries, they lived in different places and the ways of thinking and behaving of the offenders they had met were different, so the methods of defence used and the answers given by these two great scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah were different. But this does not mean that they belonged to different Madhhabs (rather they were both from the Ahl as-Sunnah). Hundreds of thousands of profoundly learned ulama and awliya (friends of Allah) coming after these two exalted Imams studied their books and stated in consensus that they both belonged to the Madhhab of the Ahl as-Sunnah. The scholars of the Ahl as-Sunnah took the nass (Qur’an and Sunnah) with their outward meanings. That is, they gave the ayats and Hadiths their outward meanings, and did not explain away (ta’wil) the nass or change these meanings unless there was a darura (necessity) to do so. And they never made any changes with their personal knowledge or opinions. But those who belonged to heretical groups and the la-Madhhabi (those who do not belong to one of the four Madhhabs) did not hesitate to change the teachings of Iman and Ibadat (worship) as they had learned from (the books of) Greek philosophers and from sham scientists, who were Islam’s adversaries.“
Let us now see what the definition of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah was according to the classical scholars of this aided, Victorious sect (Tai’fatul-Mansoorah) of Islam.

(1) Shaykh al-Islam Ahmad ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 974/1567; R.A.)

Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Haytami defined the Sunni Muslims as follows in his book Fath al-jawad:
„A mubtadi (innovator) is the person who does not have the faith (aqid’ah) conveyed unanimously by the Ahl as-Sunnah. This unanimity was transmitted by the two great Imam’s Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari (d.324/936; Rahimahullah) and Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d.333/944; Rahimahullah) and the scholars who followed their path.“ Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Haytami also said in his book al-Fatawa al-Hadithiyya (pg. 205): „Man of bid’ah means one whose beliefs are different from the Ahl as-Sunnah faith. The Ahl as-Sunnah faith, is the faith of Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari, Abu Mansur al-Maturidi and those who followed them. One who brings forth something which is not approved by Islam becomes a man of bid’ah.“

(2) Imam Ahmad Shihab ad-Din al Qalyubi (d.1069/1659; R.A.)

Imam al-Qalyubi wrote on the fourth volume of his marginalia to the book Kanz ar-raghibin:
„One who departs from what Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari and Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (Allah’s mercy be upon them) reported is not a Sunni. These two Imam’s followed the footprints of Rasulullah (Peace be upon him) and his Sahaba (may Allah be pleased with them all).“

(3) Imam Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad (d. 1132 AH; Rahimahullah)
Imam al-Haddad stated in The Book of Assistance (pg. 40): „You must correct and protect your beliefs and conform to the pattern of the party of salvation, who are those known from among the other Islamic factions as the „People of the Sunnah and Jama’ah“ (Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah). They are those who firmly adhere to the way of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him), and of his Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all).
If you look with a sound understanding into those passages relating to the sciences of faith in the Book (Qur’an), the Sunnah, and the saying of the virtuous predecessors, whether they be Companions or followers, you will know for certain that the truth is with the party called the Ashari (NB-the Maturidi’s are also upon the truth), named after the Shaykh Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari, may Allah have mercy on him, who systematized the foundations of the creed of the people of the truth, and recorded its earliest versions, these being the beliefs with the Companions and the best among the followers agreed upon.“

(4) Imam Abdal Ghani an-Nablusi (d. 1143/1733; Rahimahullah)
Imam an-Nablusi stated in his book al-Hadiqat an-Nadiyya (vol. 2, pg. 103): „Jama’ah is rahma, that is, the union of Muslims on truth brings Allahu ta’ala’s Compassion. Tafriqa is adhab, that is, separation from the Community of Muslims brings about punishment from Allahu ta’ala. Hence, it is necessary for every Muslim to unite with those who are on the right path. He must join and believe like them even if they are only a small group. The right path is the path of as-Sahaba al-Kiram. Those who follow this path are called Ahl as-Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ah. It should not confuse us that many heretical groups appeared after the time of as-Sahaba al-Kiram. Al-Imam al-Bayhaqi (d. 458/1066; Rahimahullah) said, ‚When Muslims go astray, you should follow the right path of those who came before them! You should not give up that path even if you are left alone on the path!‘ Najm ad-Din al-Ghazzi (d. 1061/1651; Rahimahullah) wrote: ‚Ahl as-Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ah are those ulama who keep on the right path of Rasullullah (Peace and blessings be upon him) and as-Sahaba al-Kiram. As-Sawad al-Azam, that is, the majority of Islamic scholars, have followed this right path. The Firqatun-Naajiyyah which was defined to be the group of salvation among the seventy three groups is this true Jama’ah.‘ The Qur’an al-Karim declares, ‚Do not disunite!‘ This ayat means ‚Do not disunite in i’tiqad, in the teachings of beliefs!‘ Most ulama, for example, Abdullah ibn Masood (may Allah be pleased with him), interpreted this ayat as above and said that it meant, ‚Do not deviate from the right path by following your desires and corrupt ideas.‘ This ayat does not mean that there should be no disagreement in the knowledge of fiqh. It forbids separation which causes discord and dissension in the knowledge of i’tiqad (see Imam al-Qurtubi’s opinion later). The disagreement in the knowledge (of fiqh) derived through ijtihad in the field of practices (amal) is not a discord, because such disagreement has brought to sight the rights, the fards and the subtle teachings in amal and Ibadah (worship). As-Sahaba al-kiram (Allah be pleased with them all), too, differed from one another in those teachings that explained the daily life, but there was no disagreement among them in the knowledge of i’tiqad.“

(5) Allamah Sayyid Ahmad at-Tahtawi (d. 1231/1816; Rahimahullah)
Allamah Sayyid Ahmad at-Tahtawi, a great Hanafi fiqh scholar of Egypt, wrote on the subject of ‚Zabayih‘ in his Hashiya al-Durr al-Mukhtar:
„According to the majority of scholars of tafsir, the ayat, ‚They parted into groups in the religion,‘ referred to the people of bid’ah who would arise in this Ummah. In a Hadith reported by Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), Rasulullah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said to Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), ‚The ayat about the partitions into groups in the religion refers to the people of bid’ah and to the followers of their nafs who would arise in this Ummah.‘ Allah declared in the 153rd ayat of Surah Al-An’am, ‚This is My Straight path, so follow it! Follow not other ways, lest you be parted from His way!‘ (that is, Jews, Christians, and other heretics departed from the right path; you should not part like them!). In the 103rd ayat of Surah Al-Imran, Allah declares, ‚And hold fast, all of you together, to the rope of Allah, and do not separate!‘ (see later for a brief commentary). Some scholars of tafsir said that Allah’s rope meant Jama’ah, unity. The command, ‚Do not separate‘, shows that it is so and the Jama’ah are the possessors of fiqh and ilm (knowledge). One who descents from fuqaha (scholars of fiqh) as much as a span falls into heresy, becomes deprived of Allah’s help and deserves Hell, because the fuqaha have been on the right path and have held on to the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Peace and blessings be upon him) and on to the path of al-Khulafa ar-Rashideen, the Four Khaliphs (may Allah be pleased with them). As-Sawad al-Azam, that is, the majority of the Muslims, are on the path of fuqaha. Those who depart from their path will burn in the fire of Hell. O believers! Follow the unique group which is protected against Hell! And this group is the one that is called Ahl as-Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ah. For, Allah’s help, protection and guidance are for the followers of this group, and His wrath and punishment are for those who dissent from this group. Today, this group of salvation comes together in the Four Madhhabs, namely the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali.“

It is very important to have unity in the Ummah, and to achieve this goal of unity it is incumbent that the whole Ummah has the correct and preserved aqidah of the Salaf as-salihin (may Allah be pleased with them all); since Allah will no doubt ask us about our aqidah if it is not in conformity with the divine revelation and what his Messenger (Peace and blessings be upon him) transmitted to us. The way of the Salaf as-salihin is the way of the saved sect of the Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah. And we should all know that the Jama’ah is the sect which has the most correct and united aqid’ah out of all other Jama’ahs. To know what is the real Jama’ah, one must look into the Qur’an and Hadith for evidence. If one was to look deeply in to this matter with an open and scholarly mind, one will come to the conclusion that this great Jama’ah is the one which is composed of the foremost scholars of Qur’anic commentary, Hadith, fiqh and other Islamic sciences; it is no doubt the Jama’ah which has had the greatest following throughout Islamic history in terms of scholars and laity, and this alone is the main body of Islam which represents the views of the great mass of believers (as-Sawad al-Azam) as we shall see from the Hadith evidence below. Let us now see what Allah ta’ala has said about unity and schism in the Holy Qur’an.

Qur’anic Evidence
(1) Surah al-Imran (3:103):
„And hold fast, all of you together, to the rope of Allah and be not divided.“
Imam Sayf ad-Din al-Amidi (d. 631/1233; Rahimahullah) said in his al-Ihkam fi usul al-ahkam (The proficiency: on the fundamentals of legal rulings, pg. 295) with regard to the above Qur’anic verse:
„Allah has forbidden separation, and disagreement with consensus (ijma) is separation.“
Hence, if Allah has forbidden separation then surely we must all unite on the unanimously accepted aqid’ah of our pious predecessors. And I have already quoted Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (Rahimahullah) as saying: „This unanimity (in aqidah) was transmitted by the two great Imam’s Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari and Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (Allah’s mercy be upon them) and the scholars who followed their path.“

Mahmoud Ayoub wrote in The Qur’an and Its Interpreters (vol. II, 275-6):
„Ibn Kathir (d. 774/1373; Rahimahullah) interprets the ‚rope of God‘ in verse 103 as ‚The covenant of God,‘ citing in support of this interpretation verse 112 below (in Surah al-Imran). Another view, he adds, is that ‚The rope of God‘ here refers to the Qur’an, as reported on the authority of Ali (Allah be pleased with him) who said that ‚The Qur’an is God’s strong rope and the straight way.‘ He cites another Hadith, on the authority of Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (Allah be pleased with him), where the Prophet (Peace be upon him) declared, ‚The book of God is God’s rope stretched from heaven to earth.‘ Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him) reported -that the Messenger of God (Peace be upon him) said, ‚Surely this Qur’an is God’s strong rope, manifest light, and beneficial source of healing. It is protection for those who hold fast to it, and a means of salvation for those who abide by it.‘
Ibn Kathir interprets the injunction, ‚and do not be divided‘ to mean strict adherence to unity among Muslims. He reports on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, ‚God will be pleased with three acts from you, and wrathful with three others. He wishes that you worship Him alone without associating any thing with Him; that you hold fast all together to the rope of God and be not divided; and that you show loyalty to those whom God has set in authority.‘ (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, II, pp. 83-4)

Qurtubi (d. 671/1273; Rahimahullah) agrees with Tabari (d. 923 CE; Rahimahullah) and Ibn Kathir regarding the meaning of ‚the rope of God‘ in verse 103. He cites with approval the famous traditionist Ibn al-Mubarak (d. 181/797; Rahimahullah) who said, ‚Surely unity is God’s rope; therefore hold fast all together to ‚its firm handle‘ (see Qur’an 2:256).‘ Qurtubi adds that ‚God enjoins concord and forbids dissension, for in disunity is perdition, and in unity salvation.‘

Qurtubi offers two possible interpretations of the phrase ‚And be not divided‘:
‚Be not divided in your religion as were the Jews and Christians divided in their religions‘ and ‚Be not divided in following different false opinions and purposes. Rather, be brothers in God’s religion.‘
As a jurist, Qurtubi observes that, ‚There is no indication in this verse of the prohibition of disagreement in the branches (furu‘) [of fiqh] as this in reality is not dissension. This is because true dissention is one wherein concord and unity become virtually impossible. As for disagreement in judgements based on personal effort (ijtihad), it is due to differences in deducing obligations (fara’id) and the minutiae of law.‘ On page 279, Imam al-Razi (d. 606/1210; Rahimahullah) was quoted as saying in conclusion to his commentary on the above ayat:
‚If a person going down into a well must hold fast to a rope in order that he may not fall in, so also the Book of God, His covenant, religion and obedience to Him, as well as unity and harmony among the people of faith are means of security for anyone who holds fast to them from falling into the bottom of Hell.'“
(2) Surah al-Imran (3:105):
„And be not like those who separated and disputed after the clear proofs had come unto them: For such there is an awful doom.“
(3) Surah al-Imran (3:110):
„Ye are the best community that has been raised up for mankind. Ye enjoin the good and forbid the evil; and ye believe in Allah“
(4) Surah Al-An’am (6:159):
„As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, thou has no part in them in the least: Their affair is with Allah: He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did.“
(5) Surah Al-Mu’minun (23:52-53):
„And verily this Ummah of yours is a single Ummah and I am your Lord, so keep your duty unto Me. But they have broken their religion among them into sects, each sect rejoicing in its tenets.“
(6) Surah Al-Rum (30:32):
„Those who split up their Religion, and become Sects, each sect exulting in its tenets.“
(7) Surah Al-Nisa (4:115):
„He that disobeys the Apostle (Muhammad) after guidance has been made clear to him and follows a way other than that of the believers, We appoint for him that unto which he himself hath turned, and expose him unto Hell – a hapless journey’s end!“
(8) Surah Al-An’am (6:153):
„This is My Straight path, so follow it. Follow not other ways, lest ye be parted from His way. This has he ordained for you, that ye may ward off (evil).“

Hadith Evidence
(1) Imam Abu Dawood (Rahimahullah) has quoted the well known Hadith concerning the division of the Muslim Ummah into seventy-three sects in his Sunan (3/4580, English edn):
Abu Amir al-Hawdhani said, „Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (may Allah be pleased with him) stood among us and said, ‚Beware! The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood among us and said‘: ‚Beware! The People of the Book before (you) were split up into 72 sects, and this community will be split up into 73, seventy-two of them will go to Hell and one of them will go to Paradise, and it is the majority group (Jama’ah).‘

Another version of the above Hadith has been reported by Hafiz Ibn Kathir (Rahimahullah) in The signs before the day of Judgement (pg. 14):
„Awf ibn Malik reported that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, ‚The Jews split into 71 sects: one will enter Paradise and 70 will enter Hell. The Christians split into 72 sects: 71 will enter Hell and one will enter Paradise. By Him in Whose hand is my soul, my Ummah will split into 73 sects: one will enter Paradise and 72 will enter Hell.‘ Someone asked, ‚O Messenger ofAllah (Peace be upon him), who will they be?‘ He replied, ‚The main body of the Muslims (al-Jama’ah).‘ Awf ibn Malik is the only one who reported this Hadith, and its isnad is acceptable.“ And in another version of this Hadith the Prophet (Peace be upon him) goes onto say that the saved sect, „…Are those who follow my and my Sahaba’s path“ (Tirmidhi, vol. 2, pg. 89)

Shaykh al-Islam Ahmad al-Sirhindi (d. 1034/1624; Rahimahullah) who is regarded by many people in the Indian sub-continent as a great renovator of the Tenth Islamic Century (Mujaddid alf Thani) wrote in his Maktubat (Vol. 3, Letter 38):
„It was declared in a Hadith that this Ummah would part into 73 groups, 72 of which would go to Hell. This Hadith informs us that the 72 groups will be tormented in the Fire of Hell. It does not inform us that they will remain in torment eternally. Remaining in the torment of Hell Fire eternally is for those who do not have Iman. That is, it is for disbelievers. The 72 groups, on account of their corrupt beliefs, will go to Hell and will burn as much as the corruptness of their beliefs. One group, the 73rd, will be saved from Hell Fire because their belief is not corrupt. If among the members of this one group there are those who committed evil deeds and if these evil deeds of theirs have not been forgiven through repentance or intercession, it is possible that these, too, will burn in Hell as much as their sins. All of those who are in the 72 groups will go to Hell. But none of them will remain in Hell eternally. Not all of those who are in this one group will go to Hell. Of these only those who have committed evil deeds will go to Hell. The 72 reported groups of bid’ah, which will go to Hell, should not be called disbelievers, because they are Ahl al-Qibla (people of the Qibla in prayer). But, of these, the ones who disbelieve those facts in the Deen that are indispensably required to be believed, as well as those who deny the rules of the Shari’ah which every Muslim has heard and knows, become disbelievers.“

In another letter (vol. 1, letter 80) he said:
„There is no doubt whatsoever that the sect that made conforming to the conduct of the Prophet’s Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all) necessary, that alone is the Ahl as Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah.“

Shaykh Abdal Qadir al-Jilani (d. 561/1166; Rahimahullah) stated in his commentary to the above Hadith in Ghunyat at-Talibin (pg. 90),
„The Believer should adapt himself to the Sunnah and to the Jama’ah. The Sunnah is the way shown by Rasulullah (Peace be upon him). The Jama’ah is composed of the things done unanimously by the Sahaba al-Kiram who lived in the time of the four caliphs called Khulafa‘ ar-Rashidin (and others in their path). A Muslim must prevent the multiplication of the men of bid’ah and keep away from them, and should not greet them (as given in many Hadith on this issue). Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullah), the Imam of our Madhhab, said that greeting a man of bid’ah meant loving him since it had been declared in a Hadith, ‚Disseminate (your) greeting (salaam)! Love one another in this way!“ He also said (pg. 143): „The title, Ahl as-Sunnah, which the innovators have expressed for themselves is not appropriate for them.“

Although Ibn Taymiyya was accused of holding certain corrupt points in his aqid’ah, which led so many scholars to denounce him for his heresy, he never the less hit the right point when he described those who are the real Sunni’s in his Aqeedat-il-Wasitiyyah (pg. 154):

“ Their creed is the religion of Islam which was sent to the world by Allah through the Prophet (Peace be upon him). But the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, ‚My Ummah will get divided into 73 sects and each one will go to Hell save one and that one is the Jama’at.‘ Also in one Hadith he said, ‚They are those people who will follow this path which I and my Sahaba follow today.‘ Therefore they have caught hold of Islam unalloyed from every adulteration and these are the people of Ahl as-Sunnah Wa’l Jama’ah. This group includes the truthful, the martyrs and the virtuous; it includes the minarets of guidance, lamps in the darkness and owners of such superiorities and virtues who have been already mentioned. It includes the saints and also those Imams on whose guidance Muslims are unanimous. It is this successful group about which the Prophet (Peace be upon him) has said: ‚One group from my Ummah will always remain dominant with truth; the opponents will never be able to harm its members or afflict them upto the Doomsday.'“

(2) Imam Muslim (Rahimahullah) has collected a number of variant Hadith on the saved sect. He has related a longer version of the last Hadith quoted above:

„Abdal Rahman ibn Shamasa al-Mahri said: ‚I was in the company of Maslama bin Mukhallad and Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas (may Allah be pleased with them).‘ Abdullah said, ‚The Hour shall come only when the worst type of people are left on the earth. They will be worse than the people of pre-Islamic days. They will get what ever they ask of Allah.‘ While we were sitting Uqba ibn Amir came, and Maslama said to him, ‚Uqba, listen to what Abdullah says.‘ Uqba said, ‚He knows, so far as I am concerned, I heard the Prophet (Peace be upon him) say: A group of people from my Ummah will continue to fight in obedience to the Command of Allah, remaining dominant over their enemies. Those who will opose them shall not do them any harm. They will remain in this condition until the Hour over takes them.‘ (At this) Abdullah said, ‚Yes. Then Allah will raise a wind which will be fragrant like musk and whose touch will be like the touch of silk; (but) it will cause the death of all (faithful) persons, not leaving behind a single person with an iota of faith in his heart. Then only the worst of men will remain to be overwhelmed by the Hour.'“ (Sahih Muslim, 3/4721, English ed’n, see also Sahih al-Bukhari, 9/414, English ed’n)

Imam Nawawi (d. 676/1277, Rahimahullah) said in his Sharh Muslim (vol. 2, pg. 143):
„The group of people (mentioned in the above Hadith) consists of scholars, jurisprudents, authorities on Hadith, those who enjoin Good (Maroof) and forbid Evil (Munkar) and all such persons who do good deeds. Such righteous persons may be found spread all over the world.“

Imam al-Tirmidhi (Rahimahullah) said:
„The explanation of al-Jama’ah according to the people of knowledge: They are the people of fiqh, knowledge and Hadith.“ (Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 4/2167; Ahmad Shakir ed’n)

Imam Bukhari (Rahimahullah) stated in his Sahih (vol. 9, chapter. 10, English ed’n),
„The statement of the Prophet (Peace be upon him): ‚A group of my followers will remain victorious in their struggle in the cause of the Truth.‘ Those are the religious(ly) learned men (Ahl ul-Ilm).“

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Rahimahullah) said about this group: „If it is not the people of Hadith, then I do not know who they may be.“ (Sahih Muslim Sharif-Mukhtasar Sharh Nawawi, vol. 5, pg. 183, W. Zaman)

Qadi Iyad (Rahimahullah) said in ash-Shifa (pg. 188): „In a Hadith from Abu Umama (Allah be pleased with him), the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, `A group of my community will remain constant to the truth, conquering their enemy until the command of Allah comes to them while they are still in that condition.‘ He was asked, ‚Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), where are they?‘ He replied, `In Jerusalem.'“

(3) Imam Muslim (Rahimahullah) has related in his Sahih (3/4553) under the chapter heading ‚Instruction to stick to the main body of the Muslims in the time of the trials and warning against those inviting people to disbelief‘, a Hadith on the authority of Hudhaifa ibn al-Yaman (Allah be pleased with him), who said: „People used to ask the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) about the good times, but I used to ask him about (the) bad times fearing lest they overtake me. I said, ‚Messenger of Allah, we were in the midst of ignorance and evil, and then God brought us this good (time through Islam). Is there any bad time after this good one?‘ He said, ‚Yes‘. I asked, ‚Will there be a good time again after that bad time?‘ He said, ‚Yes, but therein will be a hidden evil.‘ I asked, ‚What will be the evil hidden therein?‘ He said, ‚(That time will witness the rise of) the people who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine. You will know good points as well as bad points.‘ I asked, ‚Will there be a bad time after this good one?‘ He said, ‚Yes. (A time will come) when there will be people standing and inviting at the gates of Hell. Whoso responds to their call, they will throw them into the fire.‘ I said, ‚Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), describe them for us.‘ He said, ‚All right. They will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language.‘ I said, `Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), what do you suggest if I happen to live in their time?‘ He said, ‚You should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader‘ I said, ‚If they have no (such thing as the) main body of the Muslims and have no leader?‘ He said, ‚Separate yourself from all these factions, though you may have to eat the roots of trees until death comes to you and you are in this state.'“
(NB-It is not likely that there will be an absence of a Jama’ah, since I have already quoted the Prophet, peace be upon him, as saying: ‚A group of people from my Ummah will continue to fight in obedience to the command of Allah, remaining dominant over their enemies. Those who will oppose them shall not do them any harm. They will remain in this condition until the Hour overtakes them.‘)

(4) Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him) reported the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) as saying:
„Who (ever) defected from the obedience (to the Amir) and separated from the main body of the Muslims – then he died in that state – would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya (pre-Islamic ignorance). And he who is killed under the banner of a man who is blind (to the cause for which he is fighting), who gets flared up with family pride and fights for his tribe – is not from my Ummah, and whoso from my followers attacks my followers (indiscriminately) killing the righteous and the wicked of them, sparing not (even) those staunch in faith and fulfilling not his obligation towards them who have been given a pledge (of security), is not from me.“ (Sahih Muslim, 3/4557 & 4555; English ed’n)
Imam al-Bayhaqi (d. 458/1066; Rahimahullah) stated in his: The Seventy-Seven Branches of Faith (pg. 42-3), under the fiftieth branch of faith (50 – Holding firmly to the position of the majority): „God Most High has said: Hold fast, all together, to the rope of God, and do not be disunited. [3:103]. Muslim (Rahimahullah) relates on the authority of Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, ‚Whoever is disobedient, and departs from the majority, and then dies, has died in a state of Jahiliyya.‘ He also relates the following Hadith on the authority of Ibn Shurayh (Allah be pleased with him): ‚After I am gone, there will come days of corruption and turmoil. When you see people damaging the unity of the Community of Muhammad (Peace be upon him), you must fight them, whoever they may happen to be.‘

Abdal Hakim Murad (the translator of the above book) said in the footnote to the fiftieth branch of faith: ‚Orthodoxy in Islam is defined as the doctrine of ahl al-sunna wa’l jama’a, the People of the Sunna and the Community. To know whether a doctrine or practise is orthodox or heretical, the Muslim is required to find out whether it is recognised by the majority of Muslim scholars (see later for Imam al-Munawi’s commentary). Thus even without looking into their theology, he will know that sects such as the Isma’ilis, the Khariji’s, the Wahhabi’s, the Twelver Shi’a and others (not to mention anti-Islamic groupings such as the Ahmadiya and the Bahais) are to be repudiated.'“

(5) Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) reported the Prophet (Peace be upon him) as saying:
„One who found in his Amir (the ruler of the true Islamic state; which is absent today) something which he disliked should hold his patience, for one who separated from the main body of the Muslims even to the extent of a handspan and then he died, would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya.“ (Sahih Muslim, 3/4559; English ed’n & Sahih al-Bukhari, 9/257; English ed’n)

(6) Imam’s Ahmad and Abu Dawood (Allah’s mercy be upon them) said that Abu Dharr (Allah be pleased with him) reported the Prophet (Peace be upon him) as saying:
„He who separates from the main body (of the Ummah) by even a hand’s breadth from the Community he throws off Islam from his neck.“ (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, 1/185 & Sunan Abu Dawood, 3/4740)
NB-The following five Hadith have been mentioned by the great scholar of Hadith, Hafiz Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597/1201; Rahimahullah) in his Talbis Iblis (section entitled: Adherence to the Sunnah and Jama’ah). A section of the above work has been translated by Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips in to English, under the title: The Devil’s Deception of the Shee’ah (pp. 4-5). Bilal Philips has put footnotes to the five Hadith that I will be quoting below (to declare some of the Hadith to be Da’eef), but one thing that should be mentioned is that he has mainly relied upon al-Albani’s classification of the Hadiths in question; hence these ‚classifications‘ of al-Albani need re-verifying! I say this because it is a well known fact that Hafiz Ibn al-Jawzi was noted for his exceptional stringency in accepting Hadith, and he has been known to have declared some of the Hadith in Bukhari/Muslim to be Da’eef, as well as declaring some sound Hadith to be fabricated! Nevertheless, I would like to make it clear to those readers who are unaware of the status of Bilal Philips, that he has heavily depended on the classifications of al-Albani in most of his books! If the esteemed reader is convinced that the errors of al-Albani are most apparent, then one should beware of the status of those Hadiths that have been used by Bilal Philips (on account of his accepting al-Albani’s classifications). Bilal Philips seems to be a leading critic of Taqleed who has been swept away by the tide of modern day „Salafiyyism“; and it seems that he has ‚blindly‘ accepted the classifications of al-Albani without himself reverifying al-Albani’s classifications! I ask you, is this not a clear cut example of Taqleed? If it has been proven that al-Albani’s classifications are unreliable, would it not be just for Bilal Philips to re-verify all the Hadiths that have been authenticated by al-Albani and correct any misclassifications in his books? Allah know’s best.

(7) ‚Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reported that on one occasion Allah’s Messenger (Peace and blessings be upon him) stood up among them and said, „Whoever among you desires the centre of paradise should keep close to the Jama’ah for the Devil closely accompanies the solitary individual and is more distant from two.“ (Collected by Imam Tirmidhi)

(8) And ‚Arfajah (Allah be pleased with him) reported (Allah’s Messenger, peace be upon him, as saying): „that Allah’s hand is over the Jama’ah and the Devil is with whoever deviates from the Jama’ah.“ (Collected by Imam al-Tabarani)

(9) ‚Abdullah ibn Masood (Allah be pleased with him) reported that once Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) drew a line in the dust with his hand and said, „This is the straight path of Allah.“ Then he drew a series of lines to the right of it and to the left and said, „Each of these paths has a devil at its head inviting people to it.“ He then recited (Qur’an 6:153), „Verily this is my straight path so follow it and do not follow the (twisted) paths.“ (Collected by Ahmad, Nisai and Darimi; see Mishkat ul-Masabih, 1/166)

(10) Mu’adh ibn Jabal (Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, „The Devil is like a wolf among humans as a wolf is among sheep; it snatches the stray sheep. So beware of the paths which branch off and adhere to the Jama’ah, the masses and the masjid.“ (Collected by Imam Ahmad; NB- The version given in Mishkat, 1/184, also on the authority of Imam Ahmad does not have the addition ‚the masses and the masjid.‘)

(11) And Abu Dharr (Allah be pleased with him) reported from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) that, „Two are better than one, and three better than two; so stick to the Jama’ah for verily Allah, Most Great and Glorious, will only unite my nation on guidance.“ (Collected by Ahmad)

(12) Al-Harith al-Ashari (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: „I bid you to do five things: to remain attached to the main body (Jama’ah of Muslims), listen to your ruler (the Khalif of the Islamic state) and obey him, and migrate, and fight in the way of Allah. And he who detaches himself from the main body of the Muslims (Jama’ah) to the extent of one span of hand, he in fact, throws off the yoke of Islam from his neck, and he who calls with the call of ignorance, he is one from the denizens of Hell beyond doubt, even if he observes fast and says prayers and considers himself as a Muslim.“ (Musnad Ahmad, vide: Selection from Hadith, no. 288; by A.H. Siddique)
(13) Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying:
„Follow the great mass (as-Sawad al-Azam) for he who kept himself away from it, in fact would be thrown in Hell Fire.“ (Ibn Majah; vide: Mishkat, 1/174, by A.H. Siddiqui).

The translator of Mishkat-ul-Masabih (A.H. Siddiqui, pg. 113) said in the footnote to the last Hadith:
„There is a good deal of difference of opinion as to what the term Sawad al-Azam implies. The overwhelming majority of the scholars are of the view that As-Sawad al-Azam means the largest group of the learned scholars and pious persons whose opinions are held in high esteem in Islam.“

(14) Imam al-Shafi’i (Rahimahullah) said in his Risala (pg. 252-3):
„Sufyan (ibn Uyayna) told us from Abd al-Malik ibn Umayr from Abd al-Rahman ibn Abd Allah ibn Masood from his father, that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, `God will grant prosperity to His servant who hears my words, remembers them, guards them, and hands them on. Many a transmitter of law is no lawyer (faqih) himself, and many may transmit law to others who are more versed in the law than they. The heart of a Muslim shall never harbour vindictive feelings against three: sincerity in working for God; faithfulness to Muslims; and conformity to the community of believers (Jama’ah) – their call shall protect (the believers) and guard them from (the Devil’s) delusion.'“ (vide: Sunan al-Darimi, vol. 1, pp. 74-6; Ibn Hanbal, vol. 6, pg. 96; Musnad al-Shafi’i, vol. 1, pg. 16; Mishkat-ul-Masabih, 1/228; and al-Bayhaqi in his al-Madkhal). Imam al-Shafi’i said (pg. 253): „The Apostle’s (Peace be upon him) order that men should follow the Muslim community is a proof that the ijma (consensus) of the Muslims is binding.“

(15) Imam al-Shafi’i (Rahimahullah) stated in al-Risala (pg. 286-7):
„And Sufyan (also) told us from `Abd Allah ibn Abi Labid from `Abd Allah ibn Sulayman ibn Yasar from his father, who said: `Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) made a speech at al-Jabiya in which he said: The Apostle of God (Peace be upon him) stood among us by an order from God, as I am now standing among you, and said: Believe my Companions, then those who succeed them (the Successors), and after that those who succeed the Successors; but after them untruthfulness will prevail when people will swear (in support of their saying) without having been asked to swear, and will testify without having been asked to testify. Only those who seek the pleasure of Paradise will follow the community, for the devil can pursue one person, but stands far away from two. Let no man be alone with a woman, for the devil will be third among them. He who is happy with his right (behaviour), or unhappy with his wrong behaviour, is a (true) believer.'“ (see also Musnad al-Shafi’i, vol. 2, pg. 187; and Ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pg. 112-13, 176-81).

Imam al-Shafi’i said in conclusion to this Hadith:
„He who holds what the Muslim community (Jama’ah) holds shall be regarded as following the community, and he who holds differently shall be regarded as opposing the community he was ordered to follow. So the error comes from separation; but in the community as a whole there is no error concerning the meaning of the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and analogy (qiyas).“
(16) Imam Hakim (1/116) has related a Sahih Hadith from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) in the following words: „My Ummah shall not agree upon error.“
(17) Imam al-Tirmidhi (4/2167) reported on the authority of Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), who said: „Verily my Ummah would not agree (or he said the Ummah of Muhammad) would not agree upon error and Allah’s hand is over the group and whoever dissents from them departs to Hell.“ (see also Mishkat, 1/173)

Imam al-Azizi (d. 1070/1660; Rahimahullah) quoted Imam al-Munawi’s (d. 1031/1622; Rahimahullah) commentary to the last Hadith in his al-Siraj al-munir sharh al-Jami al-saghir (3.449), as follows:- Allah’s hand is over the group

(al-Azizi): Munawi says, „Meaning his protection and preservation of them, signifying that the collectivity of the people of Islam are in Allah’s fold, so be also in Allah’s shelter, in the midst of them, and do not separate yourselves from them.“ The rest of the Hadith, according to the one who first recorded it (Tirmidhi), is:- and whoever descents from them departs to hell.
Meaning that whoever diverges from the overwhelming majority concerning what is lawful or unlawful and on which the Community does not differ has slipped off the path of guidance and this will lead him to hell.“ (vide: The Reliance of the Traveller, pg. 25)

Veröffentlicht: 5. Dezember 2012 in Uncategorized

Die Gottesgesandtschaft betreffende Begriffe
Quelle :
Der Glaube an die Propheten ist im Islam und den ihm vorausgegangenen, anderen semitischen Religionen eine wichtige Glaubensgrundlage, die man kennen muss. Um die Informationen zu diesem Thema begreifen zu können, müssen Begriffe bezüglich der Gesandtschaft verständlich gemacht werden. An erster Stelle stehen Begriffe wie „Nubuwwa“, „Wahy“, „Nabi“ und „Rasul“.


Ahzab 45-46

Nubuwwa ist ein arabisches Wort und bedeutet soviel wie „Kunde vom Unbekannten“. Nubuwwa, das in unserer religiösen Tradition als Prophetentum (Gesandtschaft) Eingang fand, wird wie folgt definiert: Der das Universum aus dem Nichts erschaffende Gott schickte eine auserwählte Person mit dem Auftrag der Gesandtschaft, um die Menschen zu religiösen und weltlichen Themen aufzuklären und um ihnen zu verkünden. Der erhabene Allah lehrte die Person, die Er als Gesandten auserwählt hat, zunächst seine, d. h. Gottes, Existenz, Seine Eigenschaften, die Erschaffung des alle lebendigen und leblosen Geschöpfe enthaltenden Universums, seine Entstehung und den Sinn seiner Erschaffung; Allah lehrte ihm das Jenseits, den Platz des Menschen innerhalb der gesamten Schöpfung, seine Relevanz und seine Pflichten, Methoden zur Generierung von Wissen, Empfehlungen für das individuelle und gesellschaftliche Zusammenleben mithilfe der erhaltenen Offenbarungen zu verkünden. So tritt im Verhältnis und in der Verständigung zwischen Allah und Seinen Geschöpfen die Offenbarung (Wahy) als Kernelement zum Vorschein. Daher stellt sich die Frage, „Was ist Offenbarung (Wahy)?“

a) Die Bedeutung von Wahy
Die im Wörterbuch stehende Bedeutung lautet „geheimnisvoll sprechen, benachrichtigen“ oder „das geheim gesprochene Wort“. Als Begriff aber bedeutet Wahy „die verbale oder metaphorische, unmittelbare oder mittels Engeln sich vollziehende Verkündung Gottes verschiedener Themen aus den unterschiedlichsten Gebieten an die Propheten“. Der angesprochene Prophet weiß durchaus, dass er auf außergewöhnliche und von ihm unkontrollierbare Art und Weise Wissen von Allah vermittelt bekommt. Er begreift anhand dieser Erfahrung augenblicklich, dass er eine Offenbarung erhält. Denn während der Offenbarung treten physiologische und psychologische Veränderungen auf. Es ist bekannt, dass Mohammed (sav) sogar zu kalten Jahreszeiten, in denen er Offenbarungen enthielt, geschwitzt hat; dass sein Kamel zu Boden ging, als der Prophet eine Offenbarung erhielt; und dass viele bei einer Offenbarung Anwesenden dem Summen von Bienen ähnliche Geräusche gehört haben (Bukhari, „Bed’u’l-wahy“, 1, „Fadailu’l-Kur’ân“, 2; Musnad, I, 34, II, 176). Die Menschen um die Propheten herum wussten, dass die demonstrierten Wunder und die Bekundungen Offenbarungen sind. Wahy, die den Kern der Nubuwwa bilden, wurden im Koran als göttliche Anrede und für das Empfangen von Eingebung eingesetzt. Empfänger solcher Wahy sind im Koran die Mütter der Propheten Moses (Musa) (as) und Jesus (Isa) (as), manche Menschen, die Engel, das Feuer, die Biene, die Erde und der Himmel. Ferner wurden auch die Gefühle und Denkweisen, die der Teufel den Menschen einzuprägen versuchte, im Koran mit dem Wort „Wahy“ erwähnt. Dabei wird jedoch Wahy nur in seiner wörtlichen Bedeutung als Wissensvermittlung, und nicht als Begriff für die bedeutungsvollen Offenbarungen an die Propheten verwendet.

b) Die Formen von Wahy
Die von Allah gesandten Offenbarungen ereigneten sich in den unterschiedlichsten Formen:

Der wahre Traum (ru’yâ sâdiqa): Am Anfang der Gesandtschaft verwirklichen sich die Träume der Propheten. Es ist überliefert, dass sich die Träume Mohammeds (sav) zu Beginn seiner Nubuwwa buchstäblich realisierten. Auch haben die vorherigen Propheten ähnliche Offenbarungen erhalten.

Das Überbringen durch einen Engel: Offenbarungen verwirklichten sich, indem der Engel Gabriel im Auftrage Gottes den Propheten entweder in seiner eigenen Gestalt als Engel, im Körper eines Menschen (tamaththul), oder unsichtbar die Botschaft überbrachte. Mohammed (sav) bekam auf diesen drei Wegen Offenbarungen.

Unmittelbare Offenbarung: Allah kann den Propheten unmittelbar ansprechen oder Er kann bestimmte Angelegenheiten offenbaren, indem Er im Herzen Seines Propheten ein gewisses Wissen erschafft. Der Prophet Moses (ra), der mit der Bezeichnung „Kalimullah“ (das Wort Gottes) geehrt wird, erhielt auf dem Berge Sinai und Mohammed (sav) auf der Himmelsfahrt (Miradsch) Offenbarungen dieser Art. Alle diese drei Offenbarungsformen sind im Koran erwähnt.

c) Die Möglichkeit der Wahy (Offenbarung)
Im Kern ist Wahy eine tiefe, seelische Erfahrung, die verstandesgemäß erschließbar ist. Mit dem Hinweis im Koran, dass neben sichtbaren auch unsichtbare Lebewesen auf der Erde existieren, möchte Allah auf die Möglichkeiten der Offenbarungen verweisen und damit zeigen, dass die Menschen, nicht mit der Gabe erschaffen worden sind, alle anderen erschaffenen Wesen sehen zu können. Sie sollen nicht denken, dass außer den Wesen, die sie erblicken, keine weiteren Wesen existieren. Propheten, die mit den „gewöhnlichen“ Menschen überlegenen Fähigkeiten erschaffen wurden, können unsichtbare Wesen sehen und mit ihnen kommunizieren. Das ist nichts Unmögliches. Dass die lebendigen Geschöpfe mit unterschiedlichen Fähigkeiten ausgestattet sind, bestätigen sowohl der Koran als auch die Wissenschaft heute mit ihren Ergebnissen, welche die Existenz der Geschöpfe, die nicht von bloßem Auge sichtbar sind, ebenfalls bestätigt.

Nabi heißt wörtlich „der Nachrichtenübermittler“ oder „derjenige, dem eine Nachricht übermittelt wurde“. Das Wort „Peygamber“, das etymologisch betrachtet aus dem Persischen stammt und beide Bedeutungen impliziert, hat in der türkischen Kultur seinen Platz eingenommen. In der theologischen Literatur wird Nabi als „eine Person, die Allah unter den Menschen auserwählt hat, um Seine Gebote verkünden zu lassen, und dem Er ein Buch offenbart hat“ bezeichnet. Gemäß den Angaben im Koran hat Allah unter den Menschen mehrere als Nabi und Rasul auserwählt. Er hat nicht nur den Rasul, sondern auch den Nabi Bücher gegeben; bei Moses (sa), Aaron (Harun) (sa) und Ismail spricht der Koran von Nabi als auch von Rasul (Al-Hadid 57/25-26, Al-Ankabut 29/27, Al-Saffat 7/114-117). Ebenso können wir im Koran auf Formulierungen stoßen, die darauf schließen lassen, dass ein Unterschied zwischen beiden gemacht wird. So bezeichnen die islamischen Gelehrten Rasul als „ein Prophet, der mit einer neuen Scharia (Gesetz) gesandt wurde“ und Nabi „ein Prophet, der die vorangegangene Scharia eines Propheten verkündet“. Ferner bezeichnet Rasul auch die Engel, die zwischen Allah und Seinen Geschöpfen eine Vermittler- bzw. Botenrolle übernehmen. Letztendlich werden die Engel, die den Menschen die Seele nehmen, „Rusul“ genannt. Während die Engel als Botschafter mit Flügeln beschrieben werden, werden sie mit Rusul betitelt und insbesondere wurde Gabriel der Name Rasul gegeben (Al-An’am 7/37, Al-Haqqa 69/40).

Der Glaube an die Propheten
Der Mensch ist ein Lebewesen, das vom Gott als Stellvertreter auf Erden erschaffen wurde und welches die Eigenschaften besitzt, mit seinem Verstand Wissen zu erschließen. Ferner besitzt der Mensch die Möglichkeit, zwischen gutem und schlechtem Handeln zu wählen. Obwohl er die einzige Schöpfung ist, die einen freien Willen besitzt, ist er als eine Reflexion von Gottes Segen und Weisheit (Hikma) mit seinem Entscheidungswillen und seinem Verstand nicht allein gelassen. Er wird durch die Institution des Prophetentums unterstützt, die ihm bei der Lösung seiner Probleme hilft und den richtigen Weg zeigt. Diese Institution besteht aus den durch den gnadenreichen und barmherzigen Allah auserwählten Propheten und den ihnen gegebenen Offenbarungen. Von Beginn der Schöpfung bis zum Ende der Lebzeit des Propheten Mohammed (sav) sind Propheten in unterschiedlichen Zeiträumen, manchmal sogar hintereinander oder zur selben Zeit, gesandt worden. Sie zeigten den Menschen den entsprechend richtigen Weg, dank dem sie im Diesseits und Jenseits glücklich werden können und waren zugleich der Menschheit in materiellen und geistigen Themen Vorbilder. Die Propheten stellen denjenigen, die den Geboten Folge leisten, den Himmel im Jenseits in Aussicht (baschir- mubaschschir), und denen, die Allah verleugnen und Seine Gebote nicht erfüllen, wird mit der Hölle gedroht (nadhir-mundhir). Propheten, die die Menschen Dinge lehrten, über die sie keine Kenntnisse besaßen, bilden den eindeutigen Beweis Gottes selbst, da sie aus der metaphysischen Welt berichteten.

Im Islam ist neben dem Glauben an Allah der Glaube an die Propheten und ihre Heiligen Schriften ohne jeglichen Unterschied obligatorisch. Ungeachtet dessen ob es sich um einen Rasul oder Nabi handelt, muss an beide geglaubt werden. Ferner muss an alle im Koran einzeln namentlich als Prophet Erwähnte geglaubt werden, und ebenso kollektiv an die Propheten, die nicht namentlich erwähnt werden, und die an verschiedene Völker geschickt worden sind. Im Koran existieren recht klare Befehle wie, „glaubt an die Propheten“; sowie angekündigt wird, dass diejenigen, die die Offenbarungen leugnen, sich auf dem Irrweg befinden und deshalb im Diesseits in schlechte Lage gebracht werden und im Jenseits in die Hölle kommen werden (Al-Baqara 2/21, 151, 213; Âl-i Imran 3/164; Al-Nisa 4/165; Al-An’am 6/48; Ta Ha 20/123).

So haben die islamischen Gelehrten einheitlich darüber entschieden, dass diejenigen, die nicht an die im Koran namentlich erwähnten Propheten und somit auch nicht an die Institution der Gesandtschaft glauben, als Ungläubige (kafir) gelten. In diesem Punkt gibt es keinen Streitpunkt zwischen den islamischen Gelehrten.

Der Glaube an die Propheten

Der Glaube an die Propheten ist eine Glaubensgrundlage, die durch den Koran (Al-Baqara 2/285; Âl-i Imran 3/179; Al-Nisa 4/136, 150, 152), die Sunna (Bukhari, „Iman“, 37; Musnad, IV, 114) und die Einstimmigkeit der islamischen Gelehrten festgelegt ist. Um die Verwirklichung dieser Glaubensgrundlage, die einer der sechs Glaubensartikel ist, muss man daran glauben, dass alle Propheten, vom ersten Propheten Adam (sa) bis zum letzten Propheten Mohammed (sav) als Botschafter von Allah gesandt sind, um die göttlichen Gebote den Menschen zu verkünden. Jedoch bedarf auch der Glaube an die Propheten detaillierter Erklärungen. Um über sie nichts Falsches zu glauben, sind ausführliche Informationen nötig, die nicht in den Glaubensgrundlagen zu finden sind. Diese Informationen können unter den Aspekten der Zahl der Propheten, ihren Namen und ihren Eigenschaften erläutert werden.

Die Zahl der Propheten
Der Koran gibt keine konkreten Hinweise über die Anzahl der den Menschen gesandten Propheten. Jedoch wurde in ihm offenbart, dass durch Propheten göttliche Gebote an verschiedene Völker in verschiedenen Gebieten überliefert wurden. Den Menschen, die sich an diese Gebote halten, wurde stets das Paradies versprochen, andernfalls drohte die Strafe in der Hölle. Einige dieser Propheten werden mit Namen erwähnt und ihre Auseinandersetzungen mit dem jeweiligen Volk beschrieben, andere wiederum finden keine Erwähnung.

In manchen Überlieferungen, die dem Propheten zugeschrieben werden, ist zwar zu entnehmen, dass 124 000 Propheten, davon 315 als Rasul, gesandt wurden (Musnad, V, 266), eine genaue Zahl kann jedoch aufgrund fehlenden Wissens nicht genannt werden. Der Glaube an die Propheten nt mit dem Glauben an den ersten Propheten Adam (sa) und an den letzten Propheten Mohammed (sav), sowie an alle dazwischen gesandten Propheten. Dabei muss man auch an jeden einzelnen im Koran namentlich erwähnten Propheten glauben. Dies sind Adam, Dawud (David), Elyesa‘ (Elisa), Ayyub (Hiob), Harun (Aaron), Hud, Ibrahim (Abraham), Idris, Ilyas (Elias), Isa (Jesus), Ishaq (Isaak), Ismail (Ismael), Lut (Lot), Musa (Moses), Nuh (Noah), Salih, Suleyman (Salomon), Schuayb, Yaqub (Jakob), Yahya (Johannes), Yunus (Jonas), Yusuf (Joseph), Zakariyya (Zacharias), Dhulkifl und Mohammed (sav). Die Gesandtschaften von Uzayr (Esra), Luqman und Dhulkarnayn sind umstritten.

Der Glaube an die Propheten ist erst dann vollkommen, wenn das Wissen an die Eigenschaften, die durch die Überlieferungen gesichert sind, bekannt ist. Menschen können im Laufe der Zeit oft falsche, von ihnen hinzugefügte Überlegungen und Ansichten über die Propheten übernehmen. So schreiben Christen und Juden manchen Propheten verschiedene übermenschliche Eigenschaften zu, wodurch die Propheten einen göttlichen Charakter annehmen können. Der islamische Glaube konzentriert sich auf die Eigenschaften der Propheten, um die Menschen vor derartigen Fehlern zu schützen, und macht diesbezüglich Angaben. Um den Glauben an die Propheten auf eine stabile Grundlage zu stellen, werden hier ihre Eigenschaften näher betrachtet.

Die Eigenschaften der Propheten
Das erste, was wir über die Propheten wissen müssen, ist, dass sie Menschen sind. Folglich kann ein Prophet wie alle anderen Menschen geboren werden, wachsen, schlafen, Hunger kriegen, essen, trinken, heiraten, Kinder bekommen, von Naturgewalten beeinflusst werden, lieben, sich ärgern, sich freuen, traurig werden, krank werden und sterben. Das sind Fähigkeiten, die den Propheten mit allen Menschen gemein sind. Es ist nur logisch, dass die Botschafter Gottes, die zu den Menschen sprechen sollen, ebenso Menschen sind. Denn Menschen bauen mit Menschen Beziehungen auf, lernen voneinander und nehmen sich Vorbilder.

Da die Propheten beauftragt sind, Menschen mit Bildung und Wissen auszustatten und für sie als Wegweiser zu dienen, hat Gott sie mit verschiedenen Besonderheiten ausgestattet. Ihre geistigen Fähigkeiten sind außerordentlich ausgeprägt, sie sind sehr klug, handeln äußerst moralisch und besitzen einen gut ausgebildeten Körper ohne jegliche Mängel. Es ist von großer Wichtigkeit, dass sie diese Fähigkeiten besitzen, da sie klug sein müssen, um ihre Botschaft entsprechend zu vermitteln und mit Streitsüchtigen zu diskutieren; um zu kämpfen, müssen sie körperlich stark sein und geistig erfahren, um in Streitigkeiten argumentativ überlegen zu sein. Die Schönheit des Propheten Joseph (Yusuf) (sa) oder das Argumentationstalent des Propheten Abraham (Ibrahim) (sa), als er in einer Diskussion dem König Namrud argumentativ überlegener war und ihm die Sinnlosigkeit, an Götzen zu glauben, geschickt darlegte, sind gute Beispiele.

Obwohl die Propheten Menschen sind, unterscheiden sie sich von normalen Menschen durch ihre angeborene Fähigkeit, als göttliche Botschafter Offenbarungen zu empfangen und diese weiterzugeben.

Im Koran wird darauf hingedeutet, dass „Die Propheten Menschen sind wie wir, aber nur sie erhalten Offenbarungen“ (Al-Kahf 18/110). Propheten können Dinge, die nicht mit den Sinnen und dem Verstand erkennbar sind, nur durch die Offenbarungen Gottes wissen. Im Koran steht deutlich, dass es ihnen ohne Offenbarung nicht möglich ist, etwas aus dem verborgenen (ghayb- was für die menschlichen Sinne nicht erfassbar ist) zu wissen (al-An‘am 6/50; Al-A‘raf 7/187; Hud 11/31), denn außer den Offenbarungen haben sie keine Kunde vom Verborgenen (gayb) und besitzen eine Wahrnehmungsfähigkeit wie normale Menschen. Nur mit Hilfe von Offenbarungen ist es ihnen möglich, das Verborgene(gayb) zu wissen (Al-Dschinn 72/26), ansonsten besitzen sie keine göttliche Fähigkeit.

Zu den menschlichen Eigenschaften der Propheten gehört weiter, dass sie Männer sind. An einer Stelle im Koran wird von ihnen als „Männer“ gesprochen (Yusuf 12/109; Al-Nahl 16/42; Al-Anbiya‘ 21/7). Auch wenn es überliefert ist, dass manche Frauen wie Asiya (die Ehefrau des Pharaos, die Moses bei sich aufnahm) oder Maryam (Maria) Offenbarungen erhalten haben, so handelt es sich hierbei nicht um einen Offenbarungsauftrag, den anderen Menschen etwas zu verkünden. Der Grund, weshalb Frauen nicht als Propheten auserwählt wurden, ist, dass sie aufgrund ihrer Beschaffenheit den auf sie zukommenden äußeren Schwierigkeiten nicht gewachsen wären, da die Aufgaben der Propheten mit vielen Schwierigkeiten und Gefahren verbunden sind.

Das Auserwähltsein seitens Allah
Propheten sind Personen, die vom erhabenen Allah auserwählt wurden. Kein Prophet hat durch Mühe und Eigenanstrengung die Stufe der Nubuwwa erreicht. Folglich ist die Gesandtschaft nicht kasbi; also eine durch menschliches Streben erlangte Fähigkeit, sondern wahbi; d. h. angeboren als Gabe Allahs. Allah hat also die für diese Aufgabe Auserlesenen ihrer Bestimmung gerecht erschaffen und mancher Prophet wusste, was seine Aufgabe war (Al-An‘am 6/124). Die Wahl lag jedoch ganz allein bei Allah. Die Gesandtschaft kann nicht wie bei einer Erbfolge vom Vater auf den Sohn übergehen. Beispiele dafür sind der Sohn von Noah (sa) und der Vater von Abraham (sa), welche Ungläubige und Leugner der Wahrheit waren.

Schutz vor dem Begehen von Sünden (Isma)
Da eine der Hauptaufgaben der Propheten aus ihrem Vorbildcharakter in der Einhaltung der göttlichen Gebote besteht, wurde, ihrem Auftrag entsprechend, von Allah die Möglichkeit, sich zu versündigen, verhindert (Isma). Mit Beginn ihrer Gesandtschaft sind die Propheten unter dem besonderen Schutz Allahs, sollen Gutes tun und sich von schlechten Taten fernhalten. Sei es bei ihren Gebeten, in ihren zwischenmenschlichen Beziehungen oder in moralischen Angelegenheiten, sie folgen in jeder Hinsicht den göttlichen Geboten, nehmen eine Vorbildfunktion ein und können sich dadurch vor Sünden schützen. Selbstverständlich sind sie Menschen und zum Menschsein gehört, dass sie Fehler begehen können und sie begangen auch Fehler. Die Fehlerfreiheit ist eine Eigenschaft, die nur Allah innehat. Da die Propheten Menschen sind und somit Fehler begehen können, wird mögliches Fehlverhalten durch Ermahnungen verhindert oder korrigiert. Infolgedessen sind sie vor dem Begehen von Sünden und Fehlern geschützt, und können daher die Stellung eines idealen Menschen einnehmen.

Dass der Prophet Adam (sa) gegen das göttliche Verbot, dem Baum fernzubleiben, verstieß und dass der Prophet Moses (sa) wider seine Absicht einen Menschen tötete, fand zu Zeiten statt, zu denen beide noch nicht als Propheten beauftragt waren. Während des Zeitraums ihrer Gesandtschaft hat kein Prophet eine Sünde begannen. Zu kleinen, begangenen Fehlern haben sie stets göttliche Verwarnungen erhalten, welche ihnen zeigten, dass ihr Verhalten falsch war. Als der Prophet Mohammed (sav) sich für den Kampf in Tabuk rüstete, akzeptierte er die Entschuldigungen der Heuchler (munafiq) und gewährte ihnen, zu Hause zu bleiben (Al-Tawba 9/117); und manchmal ließ er sich sehr stark von anderen Menschen beeinflussen (Al-Isra 17/73-74). Dies sind Situationen, in denen er Ermahnungen erhielt. Islamische Gelehrte nennen dies zalla (kleine Fehler). Ausgenommen dieser Fehler ist ersichtlich, dass die Propheten mit ihrer die Menschen auf den rechten Weg (hidaya) führenden, tugendhaften Verhaltensweise sich von der Menschenmenge abheben. Dies war der einzige Weg, die Menschen zu ergreifen und zu beeindrucken. Dass die Theorie der Sündenfreiheit praktisch auch umsetzbar ist, belegen die Lebensgeschichten der einzelnen Propheten. Diese Eigenschaft (Isma) besitzen nur Propheten. Außer ihnen besitzt kein anderer Mensch diese Eigenschaft.

Ihre Vertrauenswürdigkeit (Amana)
Propheten sind, sei es in ihrem Prophetentum oder innerhalb ihrer zwischenmenschlichen Beziehungen, vertrauenswürdige Personen. So schickt es sich für einen Propheten nicht, Anvertrautes zu veruntreuen. Eine Person, die das Anvertraute veruntreut, wird am Tag des Jüngsten Gerichts die Sünde des Veruntreuens um seinen Hals tragen (Âl-i Imran 3/161). Propheten, die damit beauftragt sind, für die Menschen ein Vorbild darzustellen und sich deshalb vor Sünden hüten, sind folglich vertrauenswürdige Menschen, was eine logische Konsequenz der Eigenschaft Isma ist. Dass Propheten Personen sind, denen Menschen in jeder Angelegenheit Vertrauen und Zuversicht entgegenbringen, ist mit Koranversen erwiesen, ebenso besteht darüber unter Gläubigen sowie Nichtgläubigen ein Einvernehmen. Diese prophetische Eigenschaft wird auch mit dem Ausdruck „Amana“ beschrieben.

Ihr Verkünden der Offenbarung
Dass Propheten vertrauenswürdig sind, kann mit dem Begriff „Amana“ erläutert werden, wird aber unter dem Begriff „Mitteilung/Ankündigung (Tabligh)“ eingehend erklärt. Die Hauptaufgabe der Propheten ist es, die erhaltene Botschaft und Gottes Gebote den Menschen und Dschinnen zu verkünden, ihnen das Paradies in Aussicht zu stellen, und sie vor der Hölle zu warnen. Bei der Erfüllung dieser Aufgaben wären irgendwelche Anzeichen von Vernachlässigung oder Unachtsamkeit mit ihrer Gesandtschaft unvereinbar, deshalb ist es eine Selbstverständlichkeit, dass jeder Prophet in der Lage war, die Offenbarung zu verkünden (Al-Maida 5/67), dass sie vor niemandem Angst hatten (Al-Ahzab 33/39), dass sie den Menschen außer der Offenbarung nichts überbrachten (Âl-i Imran 3/79-80) und dass sie die erhaltenen Botschaften fehlerfrei, vollkommen genau überlieferten und bei ihren Kämpfen auf Gottes Weg keine Vernachlässigungen und Fahrlässigkeiten zeigten (Âl-i Imran 3/146). Somit ist eine unverkennbare und untrennbare Eigenschaft der Propheten ihr Verkünden von Offenbarungen. So hat jeder Prophet in der Sprache seines Volkes seine Botschaften verkündet (Ibrahim 14/4).

Die Stufen der Propheten
Alle Propheten sind ausgewählte Personen, die die Rechtleitung Allahs erhalten haben. Unter den Menschen und den Dschinnen gibt es keine anderen Wesen, die ihnen höhergestellt/überlegen sind. Allen Propheten gemeinsam ist, dass sie göttliche Offenbarungen und göttliche Hilfe bekommen haben. Es gibt jedoch Unterschiede bei der Anredeform, aufgrund geografischer Besonderheiten und dem Erhalten der Offenbarungen. Manchen Propheten wurden Heilige Schriften, manchen diverse Seiten (suhuf) offenbart, manche haben unmittelbar mit Allah gesprochen und auf diesem Wege ihre Offenbarung erhalten, und andere wiederum erhielten Offenbarungen über den Vermittler Gabriel. Manche Propheten sind bestimmten Völkern gesandt worden, manche waren beauftragt, einem anderen Propheten zu helfen, und der letzte Prophet Mohammed (sav) ist für die ganze Menschheit geschickt worden. Aus diesem Grunde ist es natürlich, dass es zwischen den Propheten graduelle Unterschiede gibt. Im Koran wird darauf hingewiesen, dass „Ein Teil der Propheten einem anderen Teil überlegen ist“ (Al-Baqara 2/253; Al-Isra 17/35). Aufgrund dessen ist die universale Gesandtschaft, die unendliche Botschaft für die Rettung der Menschheit, die Übermittlung eines sehr wertvollen Buches und zugleich die hervorragende Religion Bestätigungen dessen, dass der Prophet Mohammed (sav) der Erhabenste unter den Propheten ist. Ihm folgen die Propheten, die ein neues Buch und Gesetz (Scharia) erhalten haben. Das sind die Propheten David, Moses und Jesus (sa). Dieser Hierarchie liegen Koranverse zugrunde, in denen die überlegenen Propheten mit Namen genannt werden (Al-Baqara 2/253; Al-Isra 17/35). Abgesehen von diesen wird im Koran deutlich gemacht, dass die Propheten Noah und Abraham (sa) zu den Propheten gehören, deren Ränge erhöht wurden (al-An‘am 6/38); Al-Ahzab 33/7). Zusammen mit dem Propheten Mohammed (sav) werden diese Propheten Ulu´l-Azm genannt, d. h., sie waren Propheten, die mit großen Hindernissen und Schwierigkeiten zu kämpfen hatten (Al-Ahqaf 46/35).

Die Aufgaben der Propheten
Propheten haben versucht, mit ihren Botschaften und ihrem Wissen den Menschen das irdische und das jenseitige Glück zu ermöglichen, haben sich Bedrohungen entgegensetzt, in diesem Sinne gekämpft und ihr eigenes Leben in Gefahr gebracht, keine Gegenleistung für ihre lehrreichen Auskünfte verlangt; und dennoch wurden sie zumeist als „Lügner, Verleumder, Zauberer, Verrückter, oder Irrsinniger“ (Yunus 10/12; Al-Mu’minun 23/24-25; Saba 34/43; Sad 38/4-5; Al-Dukhan 44/13-14) beschimpft. Dies hielt sie jedoch nicht davon ab, ihre göttliche Botschaft auszuführen. Im Gesamtkontext betrachtet, war es ihre Hauptaufgabe, die von Allah erhaltenen Gebote den Menschen zu verkünden und selbst beispielhaft voranzugehen. Diese Aufgaben können wie folgt zusammengefasst werden:

•Zu lehren, dass es keinen weiteren Gott außer Allah gibt; die Menschen einzuladen, an Ihn allein zu glauben, einzig und allein Ihn anzubeten, und alle, lebendig oder leblos, Tiere, Menschen sowie Engel, daran zu erinnern, dass nur Allah anzubeten ist. Viele Menschen glauben zwar an Allah, doch sie vergöttlichen noch andere Wesen, die sie anbeten (Al-Nahl 16/36; Al-Zumar 39/3; Yusuf 12/106, 109). Aufgabe der Propheten war es auch, die Menschen nach deren Einführung in die Glaubensgrundlagen darin zu belehren, dass nach diesem Leben ein Jenseits existiert, auf das sie sich vorzubereiten haben.
•Nach der Überlieferung der Gebote für das Diesseits und Jenseits, diese Gebote persönlich den Menschen als Vorbild vorzuleben.
•Bei jeder Begebenheit die göttlichen Gebote und Verbote als Grundlage allen Handelns zu nehmen und dementsprechend zu handeln, und keineswegs den Trieben und Wünschen/Lüsten des Egos zu erliegen (Al-Nahl 16/36; Al-Zumar 39/3; Yusuf 12/106, 109).
•Den Menschen zu raten, Materiellem keinen großen Wert beizumessen, die eigene Abhängigkeit von materiellen Dingen soweit wie möglich zu reduzieren; und sie aufzufordern, tugendhafte und moralisch handelnde Persönlichkeiten zu werden.
•Den Menschen die Existenz Gottes zu beweisen, indem sie aus der Welt des Verborgenen (gayb) und der Metaphysik den Menschen Informationen übermitteln.

Erschienen in: İslam`da İnanç Esasları, Çamlıca Yayınları, İstanbul 2004


Der vollständige Text der Abschiedspredigt von Mohammed (sav)
auf seiner letzten Pilgerreise
Quelle :

Lob sei Allah. Wir loben Ihn, wir danken Ihm. Wir erwarten Hilfe von Ihm. Wir bitten Ihn um Vergebung, in Buße wenden wir uns zu Ihm, in Gehorsam. Vor dem Übel unseres Selbst und unserer schlechten Taten nehmen wir Zuflucht bei Allah. Wem immer Allah die Wahrheit zeigt, der kann nicht vom rechten Weg abgebracht werden. Falls Er jemandem erlaubt, vom wahren Weg abzukommen, so kann diesem niemand den rechten Weg zeigen. Ich anerkenne und bestätige, dass es keinen Gott gibt außer Allah, und dass Er keinen Teilhaber Seiner Göttlichkeit, seiner Autorität, seines Eigentums und Seiner Verfügungsgewalt hat. Ich anerkenne und bestätige, dass Mohammed Sein Diener und Gesandter ist.

O ihr Diener Allahs, ich rate euch, Zuflucht bei Allah zu nehmen, seine Befehle zu befolgen, euch von Sünden zu reinigen und euch vor seinem Zorn zu schützen. Ich empfehle euch immer und immer wieder, ihm zu gehorchen. Ich beginne meine Worte mit dem, was gut und gesegnet ist; mit Seiner Erlaubnis und Unterstützung.

O ihr Menschen! Ich bin der einzige Gesandte Allahs, den Er damit beauftragt hat, Seine Befehle zu vermitteln, Seine göttlichen Entscheidungen auszuführen, das Land aufzubauen und die Weltordnung zu schaffen. Hört mir zu, ich werde euch einiges erklären. Ich weiß nicht, ob ich euch nach diesem Jahr hier jemals wieder treffen werde.

O ihr Menschen! Genauso wie in diesem Monat, dieser Stadt und an diesem heutigen Tag verdienen euer Blut, eure Seelen, euer Recht auf Leben, eure Besitztümer, euer Anstand, eure Würde, eure Ehre und eure körperliche Unversehrtheit Respekt und Schutz und sind unantastbar bis zu dem Tag, an dem ihr euren Herrn treffen werdet. Strafen, die aufgrund der vom Islam festgelegten Verantwortlichkeit vollstreckt werden, und welche auf gerechtfertigten Entscheidungen beruhen, sind eine Ausnahme.

Hört mir gut zu, sodass ihr mit Würde und Ehre weiterhin friedlich lebt. Seid auf keinen Fall ungerecht und unterdrückt niemanden. Seid kein Werkzeug des Zwangs, der Unterdrückung und der Folter. Gebt der Unterdrückung nicht nach. Akzeptiert keine Ungerechtigkeit. Habe ich mich deutlich ausdrücken können?

Allah, sei auch Du mein Zeuge!

Meine Gefährten! Ihr werdet in die Gegenwart eures Herrn treten; Er wird euch über eure bewussten Taten zur Rechenschaft ziehen. Habe ich es klar und deutlich verkünden können?

Allah, sei auch Du mein Zeuge!

O ihr Menschen, nehmt Zuflucht bei Allah, haltet euch fest an Seine Befehle und schützt euch vor Seinem Zorn. Händigt den Menschen keine unvollständigen Güter aus, vermindert nicht den Wert dieser Güter, bezahlt nicht zu wenig, lästert nicht über ihre Güter, betreibt keinen unlauteren Wettbewerb und verursacht keinen Verlust der Rechte oder Güter der anderen, indem ihr diese täuscht, betrügt oder opportunistisch seid. Verursacht in eurem Land und auf Erden keine Konflikte, indem ihr Hoffnungslosigkeit verbreitet. Betreibt keine Lästereien.

Meine Gefährten! Wem etwas anvertraut wird, der soll das Anvertraute seinem Besitzer zurückgeben. Falls ihr etwas geschenkt bekommt, schenkt etwas zurück. Der Bürge ist wie ein Schuldner. Schulden müssen bezahlt werden.

Kommt nicht zu mir, falls ihr Hilfe von euren Vorfahren und eurer Abstammung erwartet. Kommt aufgrund eurer bewussten Handlungen. Ich sage euch genau das, was ich allen Menschen sage.

Der Zinshandel der Zeit der Unwissenheit (Dschahiliya) ist abgeschafft worden. Allah hat befohlen, die ersten Zinsen, die abgeschafft werden sollen, seien diejenigen von Abbas b. Abdulmuttalib. Nur das Grundkapital gehört euch. Weder ihr dürft ungerecht sein, noch darf man euch gegenüber ungerecht sein. Allah hat den Zinshandel strikt verboten. Der erste durch Verzweiflung zustande gekommene Zinshandel im Land und auf Erden, den ich aufheben werde, ist derjenige, den mein Onkel Abbas b. Abdulmuttalib bei seinem Handel einsetzte.

O ihr Menschen, wisst ihr, in welchen Monat, Tag und in welchem Land ihr seid?

(Die Leute sagten: „An einem bemerkenswerten, besonderen Tag, der Respekt verdient, in einem unantastbaren Land und Monat.“)

O ihr Menschen! Genauso wie in diesem Monat, in dieser Stadt und an diesem heutigen Tag verdienen euer Blut, eure Seelen, euer Recht auf Leben, eure Besitztümer, euer Anstand, eure Würde, eure Ehre und eure körperliche Unversehrtheit Respekt und Schutz und sind unantastbar bis zu dem Tag, an dem ihr euren Herrn treffen werdet. Strafen, die aufgrund der vom Islam festgelegten Verantwortlichkeit vollstreckt werden, und welche auf gerechtfertigten Entscheidungen beruhen, sind eine Ausnahme.

Meine Gefährten! Ich erkläre, dass alle Blut-, Wasser- und Güterfehden der Zeit der Dschahiliya bis zum Jüngsten Tag abgeschafft sind.

Die Blutfehden der Zeit der Dschahiliya wurden bis zum Jüngsten Tag abgeschafft. Die Erste, die wir abschaffen, ist Amir (Iyas) b. Rabia b. al-Harith b. Abdulmuttalibs Blutfehde. Er war ein Kind, das beim Stamme Sad b. Lays, einer Amme gegeben wurde. Huzayl hat ihn getötet.

Habe ich es klar und deutlich verkündet?

(Die Leute sagten: „Selbstverständlich, hast du es verkündet.“)

-Allah, sei auch Du mein Zeuge! Diejenigen, die hier sind, sollen meine Worte an diejenigen, die nicht hier sind, weiterleiten.

Außer dem Wächteramt (Hidschaba) und dem Amt für die Verpflegung der Pilger mit Wasser (Siqaya), wurden alle der Kaaba zugehörigen Ämter der Zeit der Dschahiliya aufgehoben.

Die Strafe für mutwilliges Töten ist Vergeltung. Mord, der dem mutwilligen Töten ähnelt, ist das Töten mit einem Stock oder Stein. Als Blutgeld dafür gelten hundert Kamele. Wer mehr verlangt, hat den Islam nicht angenommen und sehnt sich nach der Zeit der Dschahiliya. Der größte Feind Allahs ist derjenige, der jemanden, der keine böse Absicht hat, grundlos tötet; und derjenige, der jemanden grundlos schlägt.

Habe ich es klar und deutlich verkündet? Allah, sei auch Du mein Zeuge!

O ihr Menschen! Ich warne euch, jeder haftet nur für sein eigenes Verbrechen. Ein Vater ist nicht verantwortlich für die Schuld seines Kindes, ein Kind ist nicht verantwortlich für die Schuld seines Vaters.

O ihr Menschen! Satan hat die Hoffnung, hier in eurem Land von euch vergöttert zu werden, aufgegeben. Allerdings wird er es genießen, euch durch Verhalten, das ihr als unbedeutend betrachtet, gegeneinander aufzuhetzen; und ihr ihm dadurch gehorcht. Hütet euch vor dem Satan und seinem unmoralischen, teuflischen Zorn; vor den Intrigen und der Verführung durch ihm Ähnlichen, indem ihr euch eurer Religion hingebt und sie behütet.

O ihr Menschen, schwört nicht in Allahs Namen zur Bekräftigung einer Lüge. Allah wird diejenigen, die dies tun, entblößen.

O ihr Menschen! Die Zeit schreitet in dem geordneten System voran, das an dem Tag entstand, als Allah Himmel und Erde schuf. Die Anzahl der Monate ist zwölf. Vier von ihnen sind haram (heilige) Monate. Drei von diesen folgen aufeinander. Einer von ihnen ist einzeln. Es sind dies die Monate Dhu al-Qa’da, Dhu al- Hidschdscha, Muharram und der sich zwischen Dschumada al-Ahir und Schaban befindende Radschab, der vom Stamme Mudar benannt wurde.

Gemäß der Aufzeichnung auf der verwahrten Tafel (Lawh Mahfuz), die Allah an dem Tag, an dem er Himmel und Erde erschuf, verfasste, beträgt die Anzahl der Monate zwölf. In vier von diesen zwölf Monaten ist es verboten, Krieg zu führen. Dieses Gesetz zu den heiligen Monaten ist das Gesetz der Religion, welche die Menschheit aufrecht und die menschlichen Werte und die Ordnung instand hält und welche die natürlichen, unveränderbaren Rechtsvorschriften der Zivilisation beinhaltet. Quält euch selbst und die anderen nicht, indem ihr im Bezug auf diese Monate gegen Allahs Verbote handelt.

So wie die Muschriq (Polytheisten), die Allah in Bezug auf seine Göttlichkeit, Autorität, Macht und Eigentum etwas gleichsetzen und beigesellen, gemeinsam gegen euch kämpfen, so kämpft auch ihr alle zusammen gegen sie. Wisst, dass Allah an der Seite der Gläubigen und Frommen ist, die Zuflucht bei Ihm nehmen, sich von Sünden gereinigt haben, indem sie seine Befehle befolgen; die sich vor seinem Zorn hüten, mit einem Bewusstsein für Verantwortung und Pflichten leben und Anspruch auf ihre Rechte erheben; mit Charakter, und ihrer religiösen und sozialen Aufgaben bewusst sind.

Das Verschiebung der heiligen Monate, in denen Gewaltlosigkeit zur Tradition geworden ist, das Hinzufügen eines Monats zu den zwölf Monaten und das Erstellen eines gefälschten Kalenders, also die Ablehnung von Allahs Befehl, den Er über die Jahre und Monate getroffen hat, ist nicht akzeptierbar.

Sie halten die Kriege, die in dem durch Verschiebung und Veränderung hinzugefügten Monat stattfinden, in einem Jahr für halal (erlaubt) und legitim, und im nächsten für verboten. Sie wollen die Zahl, die Allah als haram (verboten, heilig) verkündet hat, fälschen und diese für halal und legitim erklären. Ihre bewussten, schlechten Handlungen wurden ihnen verschönert gezeigt. Allah wird denjenigen, die das gemeinsame Versprechen im Abkommen zwischen Herr und Glaubendem und ihren Glauben an Allah, dem Bewusstsein des Dienens, der Pflicht und der Verantwortlichkeit, in ihr Unterbewusstsein drängen und weiterhin Blasphemie betreiben und sich undankbar verhalten, niemals den rechten Weg zeigen oder ihnen Erfolg gönnen (at-Tauba, 9/36-37).

In einem Jahr hielten sie den Monat Safar für halal; in einem Jahr war Muharram ein verbotener Monat. Dies ist Nasi (dem Jahr hinzufügen). Allah, sei auch Du mein Zeuge!

O ihr Menschen! Eure Frauen haben gewisse Rechte über euch, und ihr habt gewisse Rechte über eure Frauen. Sie haben euch gegenüber (die Pflicht), nicht euer Bett entehren zu lassen, euch nicht gefällige Leute nicht ohne eure Erlaubnis in euer Haus zu nehmen, nicht schlecht zu sprechen und sich nicht schlecht zu benehmen und keine offenkundige Unmoral zu begehen. Wenn sie das tun, so hat Allah euch erlaubt, sich von ihrem Lager zu trennen und sie zu schlagen, aber nicht heftig: doch wenn sie aufhören, erhalten sie ihren Unterhalt und ihre Kleidung wie üblich. Wünscht Gutes für eure Frauen, bemüht euch um sie. Sie sind nämlich eure Lebensgefährten und können nicht für sich selbst einstehen. Allah hat sie euch anvertraut. Durch Allahs Befehl und Urteil wurden eure Beziehungen zu ihnen erlaubt (halal). Falls sie ihre Rechte wahren und zu ihren Verantwortungen stehen, habt ihr nicht das Recht sie zu misshandeln oder zu bestrafen. Falls ihr euch Sorgen um den Gehorsam eurer Frauen macht oder fürchtet, dass sie Gewalt ausüben werden, beratet sie und trennt eure Betten. Schlagt sie ohne Übertreibung. Sie haben das Recht darauf, dass ihr mit Lebensmittel und Kleidung großzügig seid und jede Art von Güte und Gunst zeigt. Im Bezug auf die Erfüllung der Rechte der Frauen, haltet euch fest an Allahs Befehle, hütet euch vor seinem Zorn, wünscht Gutes für sie und bemüht euch, ihre Bedingungen zu verbessern. Lasst eure Frauen die finanziellen Mittel des Hauses ohne eure Zustimmung nicht großzügig ausgeben. Versteht meine Worte gut, und erinnert euch an sie.

Habe ich es klar und deutlich verkündet? Allah, sei auch Du mein Zeuge!

O ihr Menschen! Ich empfehle euch, eure männlichen und weiblichen Sklaven, die ihr auf legitime Art und Weise besitzt und über die ihr legitime Rechte habt, mit denen ihr menschliche Beziehungen pflegt und die mit Arbeitsverträgen an euch gebunden sind, gut zu behandeln. Ich empfehle euch, ihnen die gleichen Speisen aufzustellen, die ihr esst, und sie gemäß eurer Kleidung einzukleiden. Falls sie etwas Unverzeihbares tun, bestraft sie gemäß dem gängigen Strafmaß. Foltert und bestraft sie nicht.

O ihr Menschen! Hört gut auf meine Worte und denkt gut nach. Wisst, dass Muslime aller Rassen Brüder sind. Alle Gläubigen sind Brüder. Kein Besitztum eines Bruders ist halal, solange dieser es nicht genehmigt. Lasst kein Unrecht, Trug oder Verrat zu.

Soll ich euch erklären, wer ein Muslim ist? Jemand, der anderen Muslimen keinen Schaden zufügt; weder durch seine Zunge noch durch seine Hand.

Soll ich euch erklären, wer ein Gläubiger ist? Jemand, von dem man mit Bestimmtheit weiß, dass er weder dem Eigentum noch dem Leben von Menschen Schaden zufügt.

Soll ich euch erklären, wer ein Muhadschir ist? Jemand, der das Böse und die Sünde aufgegeben hat.

Soll euch sagen, wer ein Mudschahid ist? Jemand, der auf dem Weg des Gehorsams gegenüber Allah gegen sein Selbst ankämpft.

Wie die Unantastbarkeit des heutigen Tages ist es für einen Gläubigen haram (verboten), einen anderen Gläubigen zu schädigen. Verleumdung eines Gläubigen durch einen anderen ist auch haram. Es ist auch haram, wenn er seine Ehre und Würde beschädigt. Einen Gläubigen ins Gesicht zu schlagen ist für einen Gläubigen auch haram. Falls er ihn grob behandelt und verletzt, ist dies auch haram.

Habe ich es klar und deutlich verkündet? Allah, sei auch Du mein Zeuge!

O ihr Menschen! Die Erde gehört Allah und Seinem Gesandten. Es wurde mir befohlen, mit den Menschen zu ringen, bis sie “Es gibt, keinen Gott außer Allah“ sagen. Wenn sie das Kalima Al-Tawhid (Glaubensbekenntnis) aussprechen, gelten ihr Blut, ihr Leben und ihr Eigentum als gesichert. Strafen, die aufgrund der vom Islam festgelegten Verantwortlichkeit vollstreckt werden, und welche auf gerechtfertigten Entscheidungen beruhen, sind eine Ausnahme. Allah wird sie im Jenseits zur Rechenschaft ziehen. Seid nicht ungerecht, weder euch selbst gegenüber, noch gegeneinander.

O ihr Gläubigen, kehrt nach mir nicht zur Gotteslästerung zurück, werdet nicht zu Ungläubigen, die sich gegenseitig die Köpfe abschlagen. Ich habe euch das Buch Allahs, den Koran und die Sunna seines Gesandten hinterlassen, die deutliche religiöse, wissenschaftliche, administrative und politische Regeln beinhalten; die verhindern werden, dass ihr den rechten Weg verlasst, falls ihr euch an sie haltet. Handelt ihnen entsprechend. Außerdem hinterlasse ich meine Familie, die Ahl al-Bayt.

Habe ich es klar und deutlich verkündet? Allah, sei auch Du mein Zeuge!

O ihr Menschen! Ihr habt nur einen einzigen Herrn, nur einen einzigen Vater. Gemäß dem Islam sind alle Menschen gleich. Ihr seid alle Kinder Adams und Adam wurde aus Lehm erschaffen. Vor Allah sind die Wertvollsten unter euch diejenigen, die bei ihm Zuflucht nehmen, sich eng an seine Befehle halten, sich von Sünden reinigen und sich vor seinem Zorn hüten. Ein Araber ist nicht mehr wert als ein Nichtaraber, noch ist ein Nichtaraber mehr wert als ein Araber; weder ist ein Schwarzer mehr wert als ein Rothäutiger, noch ein Rothäutiger mehr als ein Schwarzer; das einzige Maß der Überlegenheit ist Takwa (Gottesfurcht, Frömmigkeit).

“O ihr Menschen, Wir haben euch aus einem Einzigen als Mann und Frau erschaffen. Damit ihr einander kennenlernt; eure Geschäfte vorsorglich verwaltet; den internationalen, sich mit dem islamischen Regeln überdeckenden Bräuchen folget, euch gegenseitig helfet; Kultur- und Zivilisationsaustausch betreibet und euch gegenseitig Gutes empfehlen mögt, haben wir euch als verschiedene Stämme und Völker erschaffen. Die Wertvollsten unter euch vor Allah sind diejenigen, die bei ihm Zuflucht suchen, sich eng an seine Befehle halten, sich von Sünden reinigen, sich vor seinem Zorn hüten; mit Verantwortungsbewusstsein und dem Bewusstsein des Dienens, ihre Rechte und Freiheit wahrend, eine ausgeprägte Persönlichkeit aufweisen und ihrer religiösen und sozialen Verantwortungen bewusst sind. Allah weiß alles, er kennt alles Offensichtliche und Verborgene” (Al-Hudschurat, 49/13).

O ihr Menschen! Selbst wenn euch ein Abessinier mit abgeschnittenen Gliedmaßen als Herrscher gebracht wird, solange er die Gesetze vom Buche Allahs anwendet, hört auf ihn und gehorcht ihn.

Habe ich es klar und deutlich verkündet? Allah, sei auch Du mein Zeuge!

(Die Leute sagten: “Ja.”)

Diejenigen die hier sind, sollen meine Worte an diejenigen, die nicht hier sind, weiterleiten.

O ihr Menschen! Hört mir gut zu! Die Aufrufe aller Propheten sind Vergangenheit, ihre Beauftragung ist beendet. Allein meine Einladung und meine Berufung bestehen weiter. Aufgrund der Bedürfnisse der Menschen in der Gegenwart meines Herrn wahre ich meine Einladung und meine Berufung bis zum Jüngsten Tag. Verglichen mit den Ummah (Gemeinden) der mir vorangegangenen Propheten werde ich auf eure große Anzahl stolz sein. Beschämt mich nicht.

Hört gut zu! Während ich für ein Teil der Menschheit nichts werde machen können, werde ich andere wiederum retten. Ich werde “O Allah, meine Gefährten” sagen. “Du hast keine Ahnung, was sie im Namen der Religion alles erfunden haben” wird er antworten. Ich bin euer Vorläufer, der an den Paradiesbrunnen auf euch warten wird.

O ihr Menschen! Allah hat alle Rechte der Menschen, jeden Anteil eines Erben im Voraus festgesetzt. Für einen Erben kann man kein Testament machen. Das Testament kann nicht mehr als über ein Drittel des Vererbten festgesetzt sein. Das Kind gehört zum rechtlichen Ehepartner. Wer Unzucht betreibt, hat keine Rechte. Wer sich undankbar gegenüber seinem Beschützer, Vorgesetzten, Partner, Arbeitgeber oder Herrn zeigt, der lehnt den Koran ab, den Allah Mohammed gesandt hat. Möge derjenige, der behauptet, dass er von jemand anderem als seinem Vater abstammt oder einen anderen als seinen Herrn als Herrn annimmt, von Allah, seinen Engeln und der gesamten Menschheit verdammt sein. Für einen solchen gibt es weder eine Aufhebung seiner Qual, noch kann er anstelle seiner Strafe Lösegeld zahlen.

O ihr Menschen! Vermeidet Übertreibung in der Religion. Jene, die vor euch kamen, haben entschieden aufgrund ihres Extremismus verloren. Lernt die Handlungen der Hadsch (Pilgerreise) von mir. Ich weiß nicht, ob ich in einem Jahr noch einmal den Hadsch vollziehen kann. Diejenigen, die hier sind, sollen meine Worte an diejenigen, die nicht hier sind, weiterleiten. Einige, die meine Ratschläge weitergeleitet bekommen, werden diese besser verstehen und bewahren können, als diejenigen, die sie hier hören; viele werden durch ihre Anwendung viel glücklicher sein.

O ihr Menschen! Möge Allah denjenigen Seine Gnade und Sein Mitgefühl schenken, die meine Worte hören und sie sich merken. Möge Allah sie erfreuen. Es gibt viele, die meine sinnvollen Wörter auswendig lernen, ohne sie zu verstehen. Sollen diejenigen, die meine tiefsinnigen Worte kennen, sie an Scharfsinnigere weiterleiten. Wisst, dass die Gläubigen, die über die folgenden drei Eigenschaften verfügen, dem Islam nie untreu sein und ihn aus ihren Herzen nie verdrängen werden:

– Diejenigen, die um Allahs willen, aufrichtig ihre religiösen Pflichten erfüllen,

-Diejenigen, die muslimischen Herrschern gegenüber aufrichtig sind und ihnen gehorchen,

– und diejenigen, die die Einheit und Integrität der islamischen Ummah behüten.

Alle Gläubigen sollten die Pflicht der Vermittlung des Islam und des Aufrufs zum Islam erfüllen, indem sie die künftigen Generationen und diejenigen, die nicht durch den Islam geehrt wurden (nicht als Muslime geboren wurden), zum Islam einladen.

Nach mir wird kein Prophet mehr beauftragt werden. Außer euch wird es keine andere Ummah mehr geben. Erkennt euren Herrn als Gott; ergebt euch eurem Herrn als aufrichtige Muslime; dient eurem Herrn respektvoll und betet Ihn an. Gehorcht Seinem Gesetz; befolgt Seine Sittlichkeit und Seinen Anstand, betet ohne Unterlassung fünfmal am Tag. Zahlt Zakat zur Reinigung eures Gewissens und zur Segnung eures Vermögens und eurer sozialen Stellung. Fastet im Ramadan. Gehorcht euren Anführern, sodass ihr ins Paradies eures Herrn kommt.

O ihr Menschen! Morgen wird man euch über mich befragen. Was meint ihr? Habe ich meine Pflicht als Prophet erfüllt? Habe ich meine Arbeit getan?

(Die Menschen sagten: „Ja, wir schwören, dass du die Botschaft übermittelt, uns Ratschläge und Empfehlungen gegeben hast. Wir bezeugen es.“)

– Sei Zeuge o Herr, sei Zeuge o Herr, sei Zeuge o Herr, sei Zeuge o Herr…

Ich begrüße euch und wünsche euch Frieden. Ich bitte dafür, dass Allah euch Gnade und Überfluss gewährt.

(Später verabschiedete er sich von den Menschen. Sie nannten diesen Hadsch daraufhin „die Abschiedspilgerreise“.)

DIA (Diyanet Vakfı Islam Ansiklopedisi/Enzyklopedie des Zentrums für Islamstudien; Istanbul)

Toleranz und Koexistenz mit Nichtmuslimen im Islam
Von Shaykh Shawkat Ali Qasimi Bastawi al Deobandirahmatullah ta´ala alayh,
entnommen aus dem Blog „Sirat al Mustaqim“

Heute wird die Sage und Lüge verbreitet, dass Islam und seine Anhänger keine Toleranz gegenüber Leuten anderen Glaubens haben. Dies ist eine beirrende und grundlose Propaganda. Dies ist Teil der geplanten Weltverschwörungen um den Islam und die Muslime schlecht zu machen und zu schmähen.
Nicht-Muslime im Islam und ihre Rechte

Tatsächlich ist Islam die Religion von Segen, Güte und Toleranz ohne jegliche Unterscheidung für die ganze Menschheit. Er betont seinen Anhängern sich nicht-Muslime gegenüber mit Gleichberechtigung, Mitgefühl, Liebe und Toleranz zu verhalten. Er schreibt den Herrschern vor ihnen gegenüber keine diskriminierende Einstellung zu haben. Ihre Leben, Ehren, Besitze und Rechte müssen behütet werden. Der Heilige Qur’an sagt:“Allah verbietet euch nicht, gegen jene, die euch nicht bekämpft haben des Glaubens wegen und euch nicht aus euren Heimstätten vertrieben haben, gütig zu sein und billig mit ihnen zu verfahren; Allah liebt die Billigkeit Zeigenden.” [60:8]

Diesen Vers erklärend sagt Sheikh Shabbir Ahmad Usmani: “Einige nicht-Muslime Makkahs nahmen weder den Islam an noch hatten sie irgend eine Feindseligkeit oder Hass gegen die Muslime. Sie kämpften nicht gegen sie wegen dem Glauben des Islams und halfen anderen nicht sie zu quälen und zu enteignen. Islam erlaubt den Muslimen nicht solche nicht-Gläubigen mit Grausamkeit und Bosheit zu behandeln, sondern er befiehlt ihnen sie mit Freundlichkeit und Zuneigung zu behandeln. Islam erlaubt es Muslimen nicht beide nicht-Muslime im Krieg und diejenigen, die nicht am Krieg gegen sie beteiligt sind, mit dem selben Maßstab zu bemessen. Beide auf die selbe Art und Weise zu behandeln widerspricht Vernunft, Weisheit und Gerechtigkeit.”[Tafseer-e-Usmani]

Dies ist das Islamische Prinzip der Kooperation, welches Muslimen empfiehlt ihre beste Hilfe und Unterstützung Leuten anderen Glaubens in gemeinsamen gesellschaftlichen und nationalen Angelegenheiten anzubieten so lange diese nicht der Shari’ah oder den Islamischen Lehren widersprechen. Selbst wenn einige Angehörige anderer Glauben erbitterte Feinde des Islams sind, lehrt der Islam den Muslimen ihnen gegenüber Toleranz und Geduld zu zeigen. Der Heilige Qur’an bekundet:“Wenn sie nun auszuhalten wagen, so ist doch das Feuer ihre Wohnstatt; und wenn sie um Gnade bitten, so wird ihnen keine Gnade erwiesen werden.” [41:24]

Gute Behandlung der nicht-Muslime Makkahs
Nicht-Muslime Makkahs spannten alle ihre Nerven an um den Propheten saws zu schädigen, verletzen und unterdrücken. Sie nannten ihn einen Magier, Dichter und Wahrsager. Sie quälten ihn körperlich und mental. Sie bewarfen ihn mit Steinen und trafen ihn hart. Dornen wurden in seinen Weg gelegt, sein Hals wurde in einem Versuch ihn zu erwürgen gedrückt, die Ladung von dreckigen Kameleingeweiden wurden auf seinen Rücken gelegt während er saws im Gebet beschäftigt war. Pläne um ihn zu ermorden wurden von ihnen geschmiedet. Er wurde in Shi’ab Abi-Talib für drei lange Jahre festgehalten, während er Akazienblätter essen musste. In Taif wurde er über die Grenzen hinaus gequält, beschimpft und verletzt, so sehr dass Tropfen von Blut sich in seinen Schuhen ansammelten. Er war gezwungen von Makkah nach Madinah auszuwandern. Auch in Madinah konnte er keine Linderung finden, sondern er stand vor vielen Prüfungen und Schwierigkeiten. Mehrere Konspirationen wurden gegen ihn ausgeheckt. Verschwörungen gegen ihn und seine Gefährten wurden mit Hilfe der Juden geplant.Bei der Eroberung von Makkah, fühlten sich nicht-Muslime sehr nah zum Tod und dachten die Muslime würden für ihre Tyrannei und Unterdrückung Revanche nehmen. Aber der Prophet saws sprach zu ihnen: “O’ Quraish! Was denkt ihr, wie ich euch behandeln sollte?” Sie antworteten: “Wir erwarten nichts als Gutes von dir, denn du bist ein vornehmer und gütiger Bruder zu uns und auch der Sohn eines vornehmen und gütigen Bruders.” Der Prophet saws sagte: “Ich sage zu euch, das was Yusuf (as) zu seinen Brüdern sagte: Kein Vorwurf gegen euch! Ihr seid frei.” [Zad al-Ma‘ad, Band 1, Seite 424]

Kann die menschliche Geschichte ein Exemplar solcher Güte und affektionierter Behandlung präsentieren?

Gute Behandlung der Juden
Viele jüdische Stämme lebten in Madinah. Für einige Zeit, nach der Flucht des Propheten saws von Makkah nach Madinah blieben die Juden neutral und ruhig. Jedoch konnten sie ihren Hass und ihre Feindseligkeit gegen den Islam, den Propheten und den Muslimen nicht lange verstecken. Sie machten geheime Verschwörungen und planten einen Aufstand gegen ihn, mischten heimlich Gift in sein Essen, heckten etliche Pläne aus um ihn zu töten. Kurz gefasst, haben sie nichts unversucht gelassen um den Islam und den Muslimen zu schaden. Eifersucht und verzerrte Gefühle verbunden mit ihren falschen Glauben und schlechten Umgangsformen gehörten zu den Ursachen, die sie zu solchen Übeltaten führten.Nachdem der Prophet saws in Madinah ankam, ging er mit den Juden ein wichtiges Abkommen ein, damit sich eine wohlwollende und friedvolle Koexistenz zwischen der Muslimischen und Jüdischen Gemeinde bilden kann, beide geruhsam leben können und gegenseitig durch die Hilfe beim Beseitigen von Ängsten und Kummer von einander Toleranz zeigen können. Einige wichtige Klauseln dieses Abkommens waren wie folgt:
[1] Alle Juden genießen dieselben Bürgerschaftsrechte wie vor dem Kommen der Muslime.
[2] Muslime werden freundschaftliche Verhältnisse zu allen Leuten haben.
[3] Wenn ein Muslim von einem aus Madinah getötet wird, wird ein Lösegeld von dem Mörder genommen, sollte es von den Erben der getöteten Person genehmigt werden.
[4] Wenn ein Bewohner Madinahs ein schweres Verbrechen begeht, wird seine Familie nicht bestraft.
[5] In Not, werden Juden und Muslime einander helfen.
[6] Keine Gruppe wird seinen Bündnispartner betrügen.
[7] Den Geschadeten und Unterdrückten wird geholfen ohne jegliche Gemeindenunterscheidung.
[8] Wenn die Juden von fremden Feinden angegriffen werden, werden Muslime sie verteidigen.
[9] Die Juden werden ihre religiöse Freiheit genießen.
[10] Wenn ein Muslim jemanden schlecht behandelt, wird er von Muslimen bestraft.
[11] Die Juden von Bani Auf gehören zu den Muslimen.
[12] Wenn irgendeine Auseinandersetzung zwischen den Juden und Muslimen auftritt, wird der Prophet in dem Fall als Richter agieren.
[13] Dieses Abkommen begünstigt keine sündhafte oder kriminelle Person.[Seerat bin Hisham, Seiten 501-504]

Jeder kann mit einem offenen Herzen und völliger Gerechtigkeit die gleichen Rechte die den Juden gewährt wurden erkennen. Der Prophet saws folgte diesem Abkommen, aber es waren die Juden, die die Bedingungen des Abkommens brachen. Sie halfen Makkanischen nicht-Muslimen gegen die Muslime. Sie versuchten immer den Islam und Muslimen zu schaden.

Gute Behandlung der Christen
Der Prophet saws zeigte auch den Christen gegenüber beispielhaft gutes Benehmen. Eine wichtige christliche Delegation von Najran, zwischen Makkah und Yemen gelegen, traf und unterhielt sich mit dem Propheten saws Der Prophet saws brachte sie in der Moschee unter und sie hatten einen Dialog mit ihm über religiöse Angelegenheiten. Es wurde ein historisches und wichtiges Abkommen zwischen Muslimen und Christen geschloßen, in welchem man sich auf viele Rechte für Christen einigte. Die Klauseln des Abkommens waren wie folgt:
[1] Ihre Leben werden gesichert.
[2] Ihr Land, Besitz und Vermögen etc. wird weiterhin in ihrer Obhut bleiben.
[3] Keine Änderungen an ihrem religiösen System werden vorgenommen.
[4] Religiöse Funktionsträger führen ihr Amt fort.
[5] Kreuze und Statuen werden nicht beschädigt.
[6] Alles was ihnen gehört, wird ihnen nicht genommen.
[7] Sie werden nicht für Militärdienste eingestellt.
[8] Zehnte oder Ushr wird auf sie nicht erhoben.
[9] Kämpfer werden nicht zu ihren Ländern geschickt.
[10] Völlige Gerechtigkeit wird in ihren Fällen und Angelegenheiten herrschen.
[11] Jegliche Tyrannei oder schlechte Behandlung gegen sie wird nicht erlaubt.
[12] Zinsen werden nicht erlaubt.
[13] Jemand unschuldiges wird nicht anstelle des Täters bestraft.
[14] Sie werden von den Muslimen keine falsche Behandlung bekommen.[Deen-e-Rahmat, Seite 239]

Keine Regierung der heutigen Welt kann selbst seinen eigenen Untertanen die Rechte gewähren, die der Islam nicht-Muslimen einräumt.

Der Prophet saws sagte: “Siehe, der einen nicht-Muslimischen Untertanen unterdrückt, sie mit extra Last beläd oder ihr Eigentum ohne ihre Zustimmung nimmt, ich werden ihren Fall gegen den Unterdrücker am Jüngsten Tag fechten. [Abu Daw‘ud, Mishkaat: 354]

Nicht-Muslimische Untertanen, die unter einer Islamischen Regierung leben, oder Dhimmis, sind laut Islamischer Shari’ah unter dem Schutz Allahs und des Propheten saws Deshalb, werden sie Dhimmis genannt. Das Islamische Recht befiehlt das Beseitigen von Unrecht an Dhimmis auf die selbe Art und Weise wie an Muslimen selber. [Al-Mabsut Li Al-Sarakhsi, Band 1, Seite 85]
Daher sagt die Islamische Shari’ah:“Es ist die Pflicht der Muslime das Unrecht von nicht-muslimischen Untertanen auf die selbe Art zu beseitigen, wie von Muslimen selbst.” [Mabsut Sarakhsi, Band 1, Seite 85]

“Unterdrücken eines Dhimmis ist schlimmer als das Unterdrücken eines Muslims.”[Al-Durr Al-Mukhtar: 5/396]
“Dhimmis werden die selben Rechte wie die Muslime haben und sie werden an dem woran die Muslime gebunden sind gleichermaßen gebunden sein. Ihr Leben werden sicher und geschützt sein wie das der Muslime.” [Al-Durr Al-Mukhtar, Kitab al-Jihad]
Auf die Dauer wurde ihnen von Allah bestimmt:“Erlaubnis (sich zu verteidigen) ist denen gegeben, die bekämpft werden, weil ihnen Unrecht geschah – und Allah hat fürwahr die Macht, ihnen zu helfen. Jenen, die schuldlos aus ihren Häusern vertrieben wurden, nur weil sie sprachen: “Unser Herr ist Allah.”“ [22:39-40]

Sprich, einerseits wurde Jihad erlaubt um gegen Ungerechtigkeit und Unterdrückung zu kämpfen, während anderseits Muslime aufgefordert werden sich mit Toleranz und gutem Benehmen zu verhalten, dessen Beispiel in keiner anderen Religion gefunden werden kann:
[1] Er (der Islam) hält Muslime davor ab zuerst anzugreifen. [Surah Al-Baqarah: 39]
[2] Er verbietet die Unterdrückung und das Überschreiten gesetzlicher Grenzen. [Surah Al-Baqarah: 39]
[3] Er erlaubt den Krieg mit den Feinden nur bis das Unheil und Übel vorüber ist ,fortzuführen. [Surah Al-Hajj: 39]
[4] Er garantiert den Frieden von Gesandten oder Botschaftern der Feinde. [Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah: 3/47]
[5] Er verbietet das Töten von Frauen, Kindern, Behinderten und Benachteiligten. [Tareekh-e-Ibn Khaldoon: 2/499]
[6] Er verbietet grüne Gebiete zu verwüsten und fruchtbare Bäume zu fällen. [Tareekh-e-Ibn Khaldoon: 2/499]
[7] Er unterbindet das Zerstören von Gebetsplätzen und Töten von enthaltsamen Leuten und religiösen Älteren. [Tareekh-e-Ibn Khaldoon: 2/489]
[8] Er verbietet das Foltern von Kriegsgefangenen.
[9] Er fordert Muslime dazu auf zur Schlichtung zu neigen, wenn die Feinde das selbe verlangen. [Surah Al-Anfal: 61]
[10] Er bekräftigt nicht-Muslimen in Zuflucht bei Muslimen Ruhe zu geben und gut mit ihnen umzugehen.
[11] Er verbietet nur um Kriegsbeute zu erhalten zu kämpfen. [Abu Daw‘ud: 1/348]
[12] Plünderung gilt als ungesetzlich. [Tareekh-e-Ibn Khaldoon: 2/489]